Antwerp Diamond Heist and The Many Theories Surrounding It


Antwerp, Belgium. It is a city that boasts centuries of history in the diamond trade, and whose diamond district is a buzzing hub of activity. The city’s reputation and economy are inextricably linked to the diamond industry, making it the perfect target for a heist of epic proportions.

And that’s exactly what happened in 2003, when a group of daring thieves executed what would become known as the Antwerp Diamond Heist. The heist was meticulously planned and executed, resulting in the theft of an estimated $100 million worth of diamonds, gold, and other precious stones. This brazen crime would go down in history as one of the most audacious heists ever committed.

But what led up to this crime? And what were the implications of this theft on the diamond industry and the city of Antwerp? In this article, we will take a deep dive into the background and history of the diamond trade in Antwerp, the security measures in place before the heist, the events that unfolded during the heist itself, and the impact that it had on the diamond industry and the city of Antwerp.

Importance of The Diamond Industry in Antwerp

Antwerp’s diamond industry is so significant that it has earned the city the title of “diamond capital of the world.” The industry is deeply rooted in the city’s history and economy, with diamond trading dating back to the 15th century. Today, Antwerp is responsible for handling over 80% of the world’s rough diamonds and over 50% of polished diamonds.[1] This has made the city the go-to destination for diamond traders, cutters, and dealers from all over the world. The industry employs tens of thousands of people, with diamond-related businesses accounting for roughly 6% of Belgium’s total exports. The diamond industry has also given Antwerp a global reputation for excellence in diamond cutting, polishing, and trading.

scattering of white diamonds

History of diamond trading in Antwerp 

The diamond trade in Antwerp began in the late 15th century when diamonds from India first started to arrive in Europe. By the 16th century, Antwerp had become Europe’s leading diamond trading hub. The city’s central location, access to ports, and skilled diamond cutters made it the ideal place to buy, sell, and cut diamonds. The industry grew rapidly in the following centuries, reaching its peak in the early 20th century..[2] The industry suffered during World War II but made a comeback in the 1950s and 1960s. Today, Antwerp remains the global leader in the diamond industry.

Importance of diamond district 

The diamond district in Antwerp is a vital component of the city’s diamond industry. The district spans just a few blocks, but it contains more than 1,500 diamond-related businesses..[3] It is estimated that around 84% of the world’s rough diamonds pass through the district. The district is also home to the Antwerp World Diamond Centre, the diamond industry’s governing body. The district’s concentration of diamond-related businesses makes it a one-stop-shop for diamond dealers and traders, with everything from diamond cutting and polishing to grading and certification services available in one convenient location.

Security measures in place before the heist 

Before the Antwerp diamond heist, the diamond district in Antwerp was considered one of the most secure locations in the world. Access to the district was restricted, with only authorized personnel allowed entry. Buildings were fitted with high-tech security systems, including alarms, cameras, and reinforced safes. Moreover, there was a special unit of the Belgian police dedicated to investigating diamond-related crimes.

In addition, the Antwerp World Diamond Centre, which was at the heart of the diamond district, had its own security system. The building was surrounded by a fence and guarded by security personnel. Access was strictly controlled, with visitors required to undergo a security check and present identification before being allowed entry. The building itself was also equipped with a state-of-the-art security system, including motion sensors and an alarm system that was linked directly to the police station.

Despite all these measures, a group of thieves managed to carry out one of the most audacious heists in history.

Antwerp Diamond Heist: A Detailed Breakdown

Antwerp Diamond Heist: A Detailed Breakdown

The Antwerp Diamond Heist ranks among the list of the most audacious and well-planned thefts in history. In this section, we will dive into what happened, how the thieves pulled it off, and how much was stolen.

What happened? 

In February 2003, a group of thieves, posing as diamond merchants, gained access to the high-security vault of the Antwerp Diamond Centre, where they stole diamonds, gold, and other precious gems worth an estimated $100 million..[4] The heist took place over the weekend, allowing the criminals to bypass the building’s sophisticated security system, which included multiple layers of electronic locks, infrared detectors, and motion sensors. Despite the alarm system’s activation, the robbers managed to escape with their loot, leaving no traces behind.

How did the thieves pull it off? 

The method the thieves used to carry out the heist was nothing short of ingenious. It all started with the lease of an office space in the Diamond Center building, which the thieves used as a front to gain access to the building’s secure vault.

To gain access to the vault, the thieves posed as diamond merchants, complete with fake identities, and took advantage of the lack of security measures in place at the time. They installed hidden cameras to monitor the security guards and studied the building’s security systems, eventually identifying a way to bypass the vault’s complex security mechanisms.

The thieves were incredibly efficient, taking just over an hour to break into the vault and grab the loot. They managed to escape the scene without leaving behind any trace of their identity, making it nearly impossible for authorities to track them down.

gloves holding diamond loot

It wasn’t until a small mistake led investigators to an Italian mastermind who was responsible for organizing the heist. However, the majority of the stolen diamonds were never recovered, making the Antwerp Diamond Heist one of the most successful and infamous heists in history.

How much was stolen? 

The exact amount stolen from the Antwerp Diamond Centre is still unknown. However, according to estimates, the thieves made off with diamonds, gold, and other precious stones worth an estimated $100 million, making it one of the largest diamond heists in history.

Despite the high value of the stolen goods, only a fraction of them has been recovered to date, with the rest likely being sold off on the black market or hidden away in private collections. Some believe that the diamonds were sold to wealthy collectors or even members of criminal organizations who would be willing to pay top dollar for such valuable and rare stones.

The sheer scale of the heist is truly staggering, and it’s easy to see why it captured the attention of the world. Not only was an enormous amount of wealth taken in a single night, but the fact that it happened in Antwerp, the world’s diamond capital, was a major blow to the reputation of the diamond industry and the city itself.

Who was the mastermind and how was he caught?

The Antwerp Diamond Heist was a highly coordinated and sophisticated operation, leading many to wonder who could have masterminded such a crime. As it turned out, the man behind the operation was a highly skilled Italian thief named Leonardo Notarbartolo..[5] Notarbartolo and his team spent nearly two years planning the heist, studying the vault’s security measures and casing the area. They rented a space in the same building as the vault, posing as diamond merchants and gradually gaining the trust of the building’s employees.

On the night of the heist, Notarbartolo and his team gained access to the vault by posing as security experts who were there to upgrade the security system. Once inside, they spent hours drilling through 10 layers of security, including a magnetic field, a seismic sensor, and a time-lock mechanism, before making off with their loot.

However, Notarbartolo’s downfall came from an unexpected source: a piece of garbage. Investigators found a half-eaten sandwich and a drink bottle with Notarbartolo’s DNA on them in a nearby trash can, leading to his eventual capture. Notarbartolo was tried and sentenced to 10 years in prison for his role in the heist. Despite his imprisonment, the location of the stolen diamonds remains unknown to this day.

Impact of the heist

Impact of the heist

The Antwerp Diamond Heist had significant impacts on the diamond industry and the reputation of Antwerp, which was previously known as the diamond capital of the world. The theft not only had financial repercussions but also raised concerns about the security measures in place in the Diamond District.

Security cameras

Effects on the diamond industry and Antwerp’s reputation

The theft of $100 million worth of diamonds from the Diamond District of Antwerp damaged the reputation of the city and its diamond industry. Antwerp had been a trusted center of diamond trading for centuries, but the heist raised questions about the security of the district and the legitimacy of the traders operating within it. The heist caused a dip in the diamond trade and put a dent in the city’s reputation as a hub of diamond dealing.

Changes to security measures in the Diamond District

The Antwerp Diamond Heist highlighted the need for increased security measures in the Diamond District. In response, the district’s leaders implemented a series of new security measures, including the installation of high-tech cameras, motion detectors, and reinforced doors..[6] They also started requiring businesses to carry out background checks on their employees and provided training for staff to identify potential security threats.

Lessons learned from the heist

The Antwerp Diamond Heist was a wake-up call for the diamond industry and the security industry at large. The heist taught us that even the most secure facilities can be vulnerable to theft, and that no security system is completely foolproof. It also highlighted the importance of continuous improvement and adaptation of security measures to keep up with changing threats. The Antwerp Diamond Heist is a reminder that the protection of valuable assets requires constant vigilance and innovation.

Interesting facts

  • Leonardo Notarbartolo, the mastermind behind the heist, had a background in engineering and spent over two years planning the heist in great detail. 
  • The heist was the subject of a 2013 documentary called “The Pink Panthers,” which detailed the exploits of a group of international jewel thieves, including Notarbartolo. 
  • Notarbartolo left behind virtually no physical evidence, but they did forget to dispose of a partially eaten salami sandwich, which ultimately led to their capture. 
  • Notarbartolo was eventually caught and sentenced to ten years in prison for his role in the heist, but he has since been released and has become a writer and speaker on the subject of theft and security. 

Thief looking at diamond ring


The Antwerp Diamond heist was a meticulously planned and executed crime that had far-reaching consequences for the diamond industry and the city of Antwerp. It served as a valuable lesson for the industry in terms of improving security protocols and staying vigilant against potential threats. 

Here’s a recap of the key points to highlight the significant developments that occurred before, during, and after the incident:

  • The Antwerp Diamond heist was a significant crime in recent history that involved the theft of millions of dollars worth of diamonds.
  • Despite the presence of numerous security measures, the thieves were able to bypass them and carry out the heist.
  • The mastermind behind the heist was eventually caught and sentenced to ten years in prison.
  • The heist had a significant impact on the diamond industry and the city of Antwerp, with security measures being tightened and the city’s reputation taking a hit.
  • The heist also served as a valuable lesson for the industry in terms of improving security protocols and staying vigilant against potential threats.

Overall, the Antwerp Diamond Heist was a brazen and audacious crime that shocked the world. From the daring nature of the robbery to the extensive planning and execution, the heist remains a case study in criminal ingenuity.


  1. Why is Antwerp famous for diamonds?(2021, July 5). BNT Diamonds.
  2. Learn about diamonds – (n.d.). Buy Diamonds, Jewelry & Engagement Rings Online: Antwerp Or.
  3. Antwerp diamond pavilion – Mumbai. (2014, January 24). Antwerp World Diamond Centre.
  4. Nast, C. (2009, March 12). The untold story of the world’s biggest diamond heist. WIRED.
  5. Gokhale, S. (2023, February 8). Leonardo Notarbartolo now: Where is Antwerp heist mastermind today?The Cinemaholic.
  6. Heist of the country. (n.d.). Criminal.


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