Deep Dive into the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area

Introduction

The Washington metropolitan area is the metropolitan area around the nation’s capital, Washington, D.C. The region encompasses the whole federal district as well as portions of Maryland, Virginia, and a little section of West Virginia. It is included in the greater Baltimore-Washington metropolitan region.

Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area is sometimes known as the National Capital Region. The DC Area is another phrase used to define the area. Few people refer to the region as the DMV, an abbreviation for Washington, D.C., Maryland, and Virginia. The region surrounding by Interstate 495 is often known as “Inside the Beltway.” The city of Washington, which is located in the middle of the region, is referred to as “The District” due to its position as a federal district, which means it is not a part of any state.

The region is known as the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV (District of Columbia, Virginia, Maryland, Western Virginia), metropolitan statistical area, according to the U.S. Office of Management and Budget. This area is utilized by the U.S. Census Bureau and other agencies for statistical reasons. The region’s three main cities are Washington, D.C., Arlington (a county and census-designated place), and the independent city of Alexandria. [1]

The Office of Management and Budget counts the metropolitan statistical region as part of the broader Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area, which according to the 2020 Census Estimate has a population of 9,781,219. [2]

Washington

Aerial view of Logan Circle

Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia, is the capital city and federal district of the United States, situated on the north bank of the Potomac River between Virginia and Maryland. It is often known as Washington or D.C. The city is home to the White House, the Supreme Court, and the Capitol Building, as well as all three branches of the federal government.

History

Washington, D.C., founded on July 16, 1790, is unusual among American cities since the Constitution of the United States designated it as the nation’s capital. It has been involved in politics, sectarian strife, and debates about race, nationalism, unity, and compromise from its inception. As with many other decisions in American history, the location of the new city was a compromise between Alexander Hamilton and northern states, who wanted the new federal government to assume Revolutionary War debts, and Thomas Jefferson and southern states, who wanted the capital placed in an area favorable to slave-holding agricultural interests.

President George Washington selected the specific location between the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers, and the city was formally created in 1790 when Maryland and Virginia surrendered property to this new “district” in order for it to be separate and different from the other states. Pierre Charles L’Enfant, whom he selected to plan the city, envisioned a bold, contemporary metropolis with magnificent boulevards and ceremonial areas evocative of another great international capital, L’Enfant’s own Paris. He envisioned a grid layout with the Capitol building at its core.

During the War of 1812 against Great Britain, enemy troops stormed the city and destroyed a large portion of it, including the newly constructed White House, Capitol, and Library of Congress. The city’s population was low at first, but when the Emancipation Proclamation was issued in 1863, many newly freed slaves moved there.

The founders of the United States agreed that inhabitants of Washington, D.C., would not have voting representation in either the House of Representatives or the Senate because they were worried that locals there might unduly influence lawmakers. Residents of the District of Columbia continue to be denied the right to vote for congressional representatives but they do have the right to vote in federal elections.

Today, Washington, D.C., is a 68-square-mile federal district containing important government buildings, such as the U.S. Capitol, where the Senate and House of Representatives meet; the White House, where the president resides and works; and the Supreme Court Building, where many important court decisions are made. [3] [4]

Geography

Washington, D.C. is situated in the mid-Atlantic area of the East Coast of the United States. Due to the retrocession of the District of Columbia, the city’s total area is 68.3 square miles (177 km2), of which 61.4 square miles (159 km2) are land and 6.9 square miles (18 km2) are water (10.16%). The District is bounded to the northwest by Montgomery County, Maryland; to the east by Prince George’s County, Maryland; and to the south and west by Arlington and Alexandria, Virginia.

The Potomac River runs through the District and has two significant rivers: the Anacostia River and Rock Creek. Tiber Creek, a natural stream that previously ran through the National Mall, was completely buried during the 1870s. From 1815 through the 1950s, the stream comprised a section of the now-filled Washington City Canal, which provided access through the city to the Anacostia River. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal begins in Georgetown and was built in the nineteenth century to circumvent the Potomac River’s Great Falls, which are situated upstream (northwest) of Washington at the Atlantic Seaboard fall line.

Fort Reno Park in upper northwest Washington is the highest natural elevation in the district, at 409 feet (125 meters) above sea level. The Potomac River has the lowest point at sea level. Washington’s geographic center is around the junction of 4th and L Streets NW.

The District contains 7,464 acres of parks, which accounts for nearly 19% of the city’s total area and ranks second among high-density U.S. cities. The federal government owns around 23% of the land in the District, which is lower than the share of federal holdings in 12 states.

Population and Demographics

As of the most recent count by the United States Census Bureau, the population of the District of Columbia was 707,109. In the latest official US Census in 2020, the population was estimated to be 685,545.

It is the twenty-fourth most populated city in the United States, but its metropolitan area ranks seventh with 5.7 million inhabitants. Commuters from Virginia and Maryland suburbs increase the weekday population of Washington, D.C. by one million.

When you add the population of Baltimore and its suburbs to that of the Washington, D.C. region, you get the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area, which is more than 8.5 million and the fourth biggest in the United States.

The most current ACS data shows that Washington is comprised of people of these races and ethnicities: [5]

Black or African American 45.39%
White 41.07%
Other race 4.81%
Two or more races 4.24%
Asian 4.10%
Native American 0.35%
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 0.05%

Government

The District of Columbia Government is composed of three branches: the Executive, the Legislative, and the Judiciary. The 1973 District of Columbia Home Rule Act created the present system of governance. Local authorities have the right to enact laws and control local affairs, but the United States Congress retains the jurisdiction to overturn local laws.

The executive branch is led by a Mayor who is chosen for a four-year term. The Mayor has exclusive power and responsibility for the operation of the District government on a daily basis. The Mayor appoints the City Administrator, who is responsible for the day-to-day administration of District government agencies, defining operational objectives, and executing the Mayor’s and DC Council’s legislative actions and policy choices.

A 13-member Council constitutes the legislative branch. The District of Columbia Council consists of one member from each of the District’s eight wards, four At-Larger Members, and a Council Chairman. Members of the Council are elected for four-year terms on a staggered basis. The Council, like any other legislative body, adopts legislation, approves the District’s budget, and is in charge of general supervision of the executive branch.

The judicial branch is made up of the court system and a few boards and commissions that assist the court system. The local trial court is the District of Columbia Superior Court. The Superior Court is comprised of a chief judge and 61 associate judges who handle criminal and civil law disputes. The highest court is the District of Columbia Court of Appeals, which functions similarly to a state supreme court. A head judge and eight associate judges make up the Court of Appeals. All District of Columbia judges are appointed by the President of the United States and approved by the United States Senate. [6]

Economy

Washington’s economy is expanding and diverse, with a rising proportion of employment in professional and commercial services. Many companies are attracted to the area since the city is home to a big national government, which accounts for 29% of the employment and is also the reason why many other industries are located there. Washington, D.C. is home to several education, scientific research, financial, and public policy firms. Twenty million tourists every year contribute five billion dollars to the local economy, making tourism the second biggest business in the city. The Washington metropolitan area’s economy is the fourth biggest metropolitan economy in the US and has the second lowest unemployment rate. [7]

Washington DC Facts

  • National Geographic is another amazing organization with roots in D.C. The National Geographic Society has called Washington, DC home since its founding in 1888.
  • The DC War Monument, which commemorates local Washington, DC citizens, is the only memorial on the National Mall devoted to World War I.
  • Washington, DC is a fairly cosmopolitan city, since it is home to more than 175 embassies and cultural institutes from across the world. 15% of DC’s population speaks a language other than English.
  • Per capita, Washington, DC has the highest wine consumption in the United States.
  • The Washington Monument stood as the world’s tallest building back in 1884. Since then, the Eiffel Tower and other structures have surpassed it. With 555 feet, it is still the highest building in Washington, D.C.
  • It took 8,909,200 pounds of cast iron to construct the dome of the United States Capitol.
  • House of Representatives and Senate both occupy the Capitol Building. It is on top of Capitol Hill and has its own subway system, probably because it is full of very important and busy people.

Tourist Attractions

1. United States Capitol and Capitol Hill

The Capitol, internationally recognized as a symbol of the United States, houses the House of Representatives and the Senate. The enormous dome, modeled after the dome of St. Peter’s in Rome, towers above all other structures in Washington.

2. The White House

The official home of the President of the United States is the White House. It was initially constructed by James Hoban in 1792 and restored in 1818 after its destruction by British soldiers in 1814.

3. National Air and Space Museum

The Wright Brothers’ original 1903 Flyer and Charles Lindbergh’s Spirit of St. Louis, the first aircraft to fly alone over the Atlantic Ocean, are on display at the National Air and Space Museum, one of the most visited museums in the world.

4. The Lincoln Memorial

The Lincoln Memorial is located at the other end of the mall from the Washington Monument, which is divided by the Reflecting Pool. A 19-foot marble statue of a sitting and pensive President Abraham Lincoln is encircled by 36 columns, one for each state that existed at the time of Lincoln’s death. This is the most renowned sculpture created by the renowned artist Daniel Chester French.

5. National Gallery of Art

The National Gallery of Art is a prominent art museum that is housed in two buildings that are joined by a tunnel. Its vast collection comprises European and American masterworks in painting, sculpture, and decorative arts, and was founded on the extensive holdings of businessman and later Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon.

Arlington

Arlington

Arlington County is a county located in the state of Virginia. The county is located in Northern Virginia on the southwestern bank of the Potomac River, just across from the District of Columbia.

History

Arlington County is a 25.8-square-mile county situated across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. The county was originally part of the ten-mile square surveyed for the nation’s capital in 1791. What is presently Arlington and a section of the City of Alexandria were known as Alexandria County, District of Columbia from 1801 to 1847. Congress returned Alexandria County to the Commonwealth of Virginia in 1847, at the request of local inhabitants.

After the Civil War, a new administration legally divided Alexandria County from the city in 1870 and began holding regular elections. In 1920, Alexandria County was renamed Arlington County to avoid confusion between these two neighboring governments. The name “Arlington” was selected since General Robert E. Lee’s residence of the same name is situated on the grounds of Arlington National Cemetery in the County.

By statute, there are no cities or towns within the County’s borders. The Virginia Supreme Court ruled in 1922 that Arlington is a continuous, contiguous, and homogenous entity that cannot be partitioned or annex by adjacent governments.

Arlington County government serves both city and county services, making it one of the few metropolitan unitary governments in the United States. The County Manager plan, which governs Arlington, was introduced in 1932. Arlington County was the first in the United States to adopt this style of governance. [8]

Geography

The county has a total area of 26.1 square miles (67.6 km2), of which 26.0 square miles (67.3 km2) are land and 0.1 square miles (0.3 km2) (0.4%) are water, as recorded by the Census Bureau. It is the smallest county in Virginia and one of the smallest in the United States in terms of land area. About 4.6 square miles (11.9 square kilometers) of the county are federally owned. The county is basically in the form of a 4-mile (6.4 km) by 6-mile (9.7 km) rectangle with a northwest-southeast sloping end. It has no municipalities. Its county seat is the census-designated place (CDP) of Arlington, which coincides with the county limits; however, the county courthouse and the majority of government offices are in the Courthouse area. [9]

Population and Demographics

Based on the most recent US Census estimates, the current population of Arlington, Virginia is 244,847. In 2020, the latest official US Census reported a population of 238,644. [10]

Between 2010 and 2011, it saw the biggest yearly population growth of 3.2%. The county’s greatest decline was between 2020 and 2021, when the population fell 2.4%. Between 2010 and 2021, the county increased at a 1% annual rate. [11]

According to the most recent ACS, Arlington was made up of people of the following races: [10]

White 69.05%
Asian 10.35%
Black or African American 9.22%
Two or more races 5.80%
Other race 5.10%
Native American 0.36%
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 0.12%

Government

Since 1932, Arlington County has been administered by a five-member Board elected at large for staggered four-year terms (with two board members serving the same term). The Board appoints a Chairman for a one-year term from among its members. The County Manager, who acts as top administrative officer, is appointed by the County Board.

In addition, there is a five-member elected School Board whose members similarly serve staggered four-year terms and choose their Chairman. The School Board designates the Superintendent of Schools as the system’s main administrative official. The School Board has no taxing nor debt-issuing jurisdiction; its spending authority is delegated by the County Board.

There are five elected “Constitutional Officers” in addition to the County and School Boards. The Treasurer, Commissioner of Revenue, Sheriff, Commonwealth’s Attorney, and Clerk of the Circuit Court are among them. Except for the Clerk of the Court, who serves an eight-year term, other constitutional officials serve four-year terms. The Clerk of the Court serves an eight-year term. The 30th, 31st, and 32nd State Senate Districts and the 45th, 47th, 48th, and 49th State House Districts each have a senator from Arlington. On the same ballot as, Constitutional Officers are Senators. Delegates must run every year with an odd number.

The Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and Attorney General are also elected state authorities. They are chosen for tenure of four years. [8]

Economy

Arlington’s economy employs 148k people. Professional, Scientific, & Technical Services (40,040 people), Public Administration (25,028 people), and Other Services, Except Public Administration (11,846 people) are the most populous industries in Arlington, VA, and the highest paying industries are Public Administration, Finance & Insurance, and Professional, Scientific, & Technical Services. [12]

Arlington Facts

  • Arlington National Cemetery is one of the country’s most famous tourist sites. The cemetery is located in Arlington, Virginia, just over the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., and is the last resting place of some of America’s most renowned personalities.
  • Arlington is home to both the Dallas Cowboys’ practice facility and the National Science Foundation’s headquarters.
  • The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, which commemorates soldiers who lost their lives in battle but whose corpses were never recognized, is located in Arlington.
  • Arlington National Cemetery is the site of the Space Shuttle Challenger Memorial. The monument commemorates the seven astronauts who died in the 1986 Challenger shuttle explosion.
  • Arlington, Virginia wasn’t recognized as such when it was founded back in 1847. The region was once known as Alexandria County. For more than 70 years, it stayed that way. In 1920, the name of the city was changed from Alexandria to Arlington, which is what it has been called ever since.
  • The Air Force Memorial is situated close to Arlington National Cemetery. The monument is dedicated to Air Force men and women.
  • In 1960, the first televised presidential debate between John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon took place at Arlington.

Tourist Attractions

1. Arlington National Cemetery

Arlington National Cemetery is a United States military cemetery situated in Arlington.

It was built on the grounds of the previous Arlington House, which is now the Robert E. Lee Memorial, during the American Civil War. The cemetery has just been added to the National Register of Historic Places.

2. U.S. Marine Corps War Memorial

The United States Marine Corps War Memorial is a military monument located at the rear gate of Arlington National Cemetery and dedicated to the remembrance of all United States Marine Corps servicemen who have died protecting the nation since 1775. Additionally referred to as the Iwo Jima Memorial.

3. The National 9/11 Pentagon Memorial

The National 9/11 Pentagon Memorial is situated on North Rotary Road in Arlington, just southwest of the Pentagon. It is a permanent outdoor monument to the 184 victims of the 9/11 assault on the Pentagon, including those who were in the building at the time of the attack and the passengers aboard American Airlines Flight 77.

4. Air Force Memorial, Arlington, Virginia

The Air Force Memorial is located on Air Force Memorial Drive on the grounds of Fort Myer, close to Arlington National Cemetery and the Pentagon, and is dedicated to the remembrance and service of United States Air Force soldiers.

5. Signature Theatre, Arlington, Virginia

The Signature Theatre on Campbell Avenue in Arlington is a professional regional theater. It opened its doors in 1990 and has since won a number of awards for its productions of both new and old plays, musicals, and other forms of theater.

It is also renowned as the home of established and emerging lyricists and composers who create new musical theater works.

Alexandria

Alexandria

Alexandria is an autonomous city in the northern area of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. It is located roughly 7 miles (11 kilometers) south of downtown Washington, D.C., on the western bank of the Potomac River.

History

The city of Alexandria, formerly known as Belhaven, was renamed in honor of John Alexander. In 1669, a major portion of the site of Alexandria was included in a land grant to Captain Robert Howson. Shortly afterwards, he sold the property to John Alexander. In 1749, when the town was founded, it was named after John Alexander. George Washington, who was 19 at the time, allegedly assisted the surveyor, John West. Alexandria was a part of the District of Columbia’s original 10-mile square in 1789. Up until 1847, when it was transferred back to Virginia, it was governed by the federal government.

In 1852, Alexandria was incorporated as a city. During the American Civil War, Union forces used Alexandria to supply the front and bring injured men back to hospitals. Multiple forts were constructed to defend Washington, DC. A recreation of one of these forts is presently located in Fort Ward Park.

A portion of the City of Alexandria and the entirety of present-day Arlington County share the distinction of having been originally part of Virginia, ceded to the United States government to form the District of Columbia. However, in 1846, when the District’s size was reduced by excluding most of the portion south of the Potomac River, the federal government reattached this area to Virginia.

From 1863 to 1865, Alexandria served as the capital of the Restored Government of Virginia. The Torpedo Factory on the harbor of Alexandria manufactured bombs for both the first and second world wars. After its closure as a military installation, it was refurbished and regenerated into a vibrant waterfront neighborhood.

A portion of the City of Alexandria and the entirety of present-day Arlington County share the distinction of having been originally part of Virginia, ceded to the United States government to form the District of Columbia. However, in 1846, when the District’s size was reduced by excluding most of the portion south of the Potomac River, the federal government reattached this area to Virginia. [13]

Geography

Located in northern Virginia and influenced by Washington, DC, which is just 7 miles away, the independent city of Alexandria encompasses 15.5 square miles and is surrounded by Arlington and Fairfax counties. The little city is nationally renowned for its rich history and 18th- and 19th-century architecture, and was the birthplace of the first president of the United States, George Washington.

Alexandria, Virginia, is located on 15.5 square miles of land and 0.42 square miles of water, overlooking the Potomac River to the east and being bordered to the north and northwest by Arlington County and to the south by Fairfax. [14]

Population and Demographics

The current population of Alexandria, Virginia, according to the most recent US Census estimates, is 163,367. In the 2020 official US Census, the population was listed as 159,448.

Recent estimates indicate that the city’s population has increased by more than 11 percent since the previous census was conducted in 2010. This development is mostly driven by the amount of employment in the region, which include positions in the U.S. military, the Department of Defense, and other government and commercial organizations. [15]

White 59.75%
Black or African American 21.86%
Asian 6.69%
Two or more races 5.91%
Other race 5.41%
Native American 0.32%
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 0.06%

Government

As an autonomous city within the Commonwealth of Virginia, Alexandria is governed by the Virginia General Assembly. To alter the authority and form of the local government, the city must seek an amendment to the charter from the General Assembly. This is known as the Dillon Rule. The current charter was given in 1950 and modified in 1968, 1971, 1976, and 1982.

By referendum in 1921, Alexandria established a council-manager system of administration which took effect in September 1922. This form of governance gives the City Council the authority to adopt laws and choose the City Manager. The City Manager has administrative power and accountability and is appointed by the City Council.

The City Council consists of a Mayor and six Council members elected at-large for staggered three-year terms. Unless the vacancy occurs within six months of the end of the term, a special election is held to replace any vacancy that occurs during the term. Otherwise, a judicial appointment is made. The Mayor, who is elected in a separate election, acts as the ceremonial head of government and presides over Council sessions. The mayor lacks the authority to veto Council actions. Conventionally, the person with the most votes in the election is selected by the council to serve as vice mayor. In the absence or incapacity of the Mayor, the Vice Mayor assumes his or her responsibilities.

The City Manager is the top executive officer of the city and is appointed by the City Council. The manager plans, organizes, directs, and coordinates all city government operations; develops the docket and associated documents; attends all City Council meetings; and advises Council on the city’s financial position and future requirements. The manager may present ordinances and speak at meetings, but not vote.

The City Council selects the City Clerk, who acts as the body’s secretary. The Clerk’s responsibilities include creating the agenda, distributing it to the members of the Council, and taking minutes during the sessions.

The City Attorney is chosen by the City Council and serves as legal counsel for the City Council, the City Manager, and all City departments, boards, commissions, and agencies. [16]

Economy

Because of its close proximity to the nation’s capital, Alexandria has a thriving economy. With nonstop flights to 90 different cities and over 24 million passengers annually, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport has a significant impact on the local economy.

The city of Alexandria is home to several government departments and offices. The closeness to the national capital adds to the huge number of national non-profits and organizations as well as the number of business and non-profit offices situated in the city. These are also a significant source of employment and money.

Over 18% of Alexandria’s workforce is employed in the professional, scientific, and technical services sector. The average national rate is 6.7%. Over 15% of the population is involved in public administration. This is much higher than the national average in this field. Around 10% work in health care and social support, which is lower than the national average of roughly 14%. Education employs roughly 7.5% of the workforce, which is less than the national average of about 9%. Accommodation and food services, as well as retail commerce (all at over 7%), employ a substantial number of people. [17]

Alexandria Facts

  • Mount Vernon, George Washington’s house, is situated just south of the municipal boundaries of Alexandria.
  • Gadsby’s Tavern, constructed in 1785, was a favorite destination of several of the country’s founding fathers, including George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. The tavern is still operating today and acts as an Alexandria Museum.
  • Young George Washington participated in the layout of the streets of the modern “Old Town Alexandria” neighborhood. Much of George Washington’s boyhood was spent in the area of Alexandria.
  • John Alexander inspired the naming of Alexandria. John Alexander acquired the land from Robert Howson for the astounding sum of 6,000 pounds of tobacco.
  • The Torpedo Facility was a World War II torpedo and weapons factory. It is now one of the major visual arts hubs in the United States, with 160 professional artists working, exhibiting, and selling their work. In addition, the institution has 1,000 cooperative gallery members and 2,000 art students.
  • The construction of the George Washington Masonic Memorial took 10 years.
  • The Old Town section in Alexandria was recognized as the third historic district in the United States in 1946.

Tourist Attractions

1. Torpedo Factory Art Center

The Torpedo Factory Art Center was once a torpedo factory during the First and Second World Wars. After the institution closed, a group of local artists converted it into a studio for the arts.

2. Alexandria Black History Museum

The Alexandria Black History Museum has an interesting history, since it was formerly a library that was solely open to African-Americans in Alexandria.

The Securing the Blessings of Liberty, a permanent exhibit here will teach you all you need to know about the abolition of slavery in the Alexandria community.

3. Gadsby’s Tavern Museum

The Gadsby’s Tavern Museum is a tavern and hotel from the 18th century that has been transformed into an incredible museum.

Many significant events, including George Washington’s Birthnight Ball in 1798, occurred at this location, which is named for the innkeeper, John Gadsby. It also held Thomas Jefferson’s inauguration supper in 1801.

4. Market Square

Amazingly, the market’s history can be traced all the way back to 1753. Old Town Market Square, where it is held, is one of the oldest marketplaces in the nation and one of the oldest locations that have been continuously serving consumers over the years.

5. Mount Vernon Trail

The Mount Vernon Route, which encompasses 18 miles of land, is the most well-known trail in the Virginia region. The walk starts at George Washington’s Mount Vernon Estate and then skirts along the Potomac River, taking tourists through significant monuments and areas of interest in Alexandria.

References:

  1. Hudson, S. (2020, October 14) How do we define our region? Here are some ways to look at it. Retrieved Sep 7, 2022, from https://ggwash.org/view/79300/how-do-we-define-our-region-here-are-some-ways-to-look-at-it
  2. U.S. Census Bureau (2020). American Community Survey 5-year estimates. Retrieved Sep 7, 2022, from Census Reporter Profile page for Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA CSA https://censusreporter.org/profiles/33000US548-washington-baltimore-arlington-dc-md-va-wv-pa-csa/
  3. History.com Editors. (2022, March 2) Washington, D.C. Retrieved Sep 7, 2022, from https://www.history.com/topics/us-states/washington-dc
  4. Washington.Org. 2022. The History of Washington, DC. Retrieved Sep 7, 2022, from https://washington.org/dc-information/washington-dc-history
  5. World Population Review. Washington, District of Columbia Population 2022 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs) Retrieved Sep 7, 2022, from https://worldpopulationreview.com/us-cities/washington-dc-population
  6. Office of the City Administrator. DC Government Organization. Retrieved Sep 7, 2022, from https://oca.dc.gov/page/dc-government-organization
  7. Berggren C. Washington, D.C.-Architectural and Economic Powerhouse. Retrieved Sep 7, 2022, from https://www.smartcitiesdive.com/ex/sustainablecitiescollective/washington-dc-architectural-and-economic-powerhouse/216366/
  8. Arlington VA. History of Arlington. Retrieved Sep 7, 2022, from https://www.arlingtonva.us/Government/Topics/Welcome-Kit/History-of-Arlington#:~:text=Arlington%20County%20is%20a%20jurisdiction%20of%2025.8%20square,were%20known%20as%20Alexandria%20County%2C%20District%20of%20Columbia.
  9. https://www.ereferencedesk.com/resources/counties/virginia/arlington.html
  10. World Population Review. Arlington, Virginia Population 2022 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs). Retrieved Sep 7, 2022,  https://worldpopulationreview.com/us-cities/arlington-va-population
  11. USA Facts (July 2022) Our Changing Population: Arlington County, Virginia https://usafacts.org/data/topics/people-society/population-and-demographics/our-changing-population/state/virginia/county/arlington-county
  12. Data USA Arlington, VA 2020. ARLINGTON, VA CENSUS PLACE Retrieved Sep 7, 2022, from https://datausa.io/profile/geo/arlington-va
  13. Academic Kids Encyclopedia. Alexandria, Virginia. Retrieved Sep 7, 2022, from http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Alexandria%2C_Virginia
  14. Zahr R.  (2022, April 24). World Atlas Alexandria, Virginia.   Retrieved Sep 7, 2022, from https://www.worldatlas.com/cities/alexandria-virginia.html#:~:text=Geography%20And%20Climate%20Of%20Alexandria&text=Looking%20over%20the%20Potomac%20River,0.42%20square%20miles%20is%20water.
  15. World Population Review. Alexandria, Virginia Population 2022 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs). Retrieved Sep 7, 2022, from https://worldpopulationreview.com/us-cities/alexandria-va-population
  16. City of Alexandria, Virginia (2022, January 29,) Alexandria City Government. Retrieved September 7, 2022 from https://www.alexandriava.gov/hub/alexandria-city-government
  17. Rainey B.  and McBrien S. (2021, August 18) Alexandria Economy: Top Industries, Biggest Employers, & Business Opportunities.  Retrieved September 7, 2022 from https://www.yourathometeam.com/blog/alexandria-economy/