Hollywood’s Golden Age

The term “Golden Age of Hollywood” refers to the period of classical Hollywood filmmaking, which began with the silent film era and the first significant full-length silent film, “Birth of a Nation” (1915). The demise of the studio system, the advent of television, the rising costs, and subsequent losses, most notably “Cleopatra,” (1963) marked the end of Hollywood’s Golden Age. As Hollywood expanded from a small film production hub to one of the largest hubs, it was a formative time for American cinema. During this time, the American economy experienced a significant boom, and Hollywood grew into a thriving industry for actors, directors, and other film professionals. [1]

What Years Did Hollywood’s Golden Age Cover?

The phrase “The Golden Age of Hollywood” alone conjures up a feeling of sophistication and enduring entertainment value that made a significant contribution to American culture and film history. In essence, the Classical Hollywood period began with the end of the silent film era in the early 1910s and ended at the beginning of the 1960s. [2] Here are the top 5 iconic movies that have impacted Hollywood during the golden age. These are highest-grossing films and received various awards.

1. Gone With the Wind (1939) 

Awards – The following list contains the Academy Awards (1940) won by the film. Other than that, the film has also received other 11 awards and nominations. [3]

Academy Awards, USA (1940)

  • Honorary Award (winner) – William Cameron Menzies
  • Oscar (winner) Best Actress in a Leading Role – Vivien Leigh
  • Oscar (winner) Best Actress in a Supporting Role – Hattie McDaniel
  • Oscar (winner) Best Director – Victor Fleming
  • Oscar (winner) Best Writing, Screenplay
  • Oscar (winner) Cinematography, Color
  • Oscar (winner) Best Art Direction
  • Oscar (winner) Best Film Editing
  • Oscar (winner) Best Picture
  • Technical Achievement Award (winner)

Revenue – The revenue of the movie is displayed in the numbers below. [4]

Worldwide Box Office: $390,525,192

Domestic Box Office: $198,680,470

International Box Office: $191,844,722

2. The Sound of Music (1965)

Awards – The film’s Academy Award (1966) victories are listed below. In addition, the movie has been nominated for and won other 12 awards. [5]

Academy Awards, USA (1966)

  • Oscar (winner) Best Picture
  • Oscar (winner) Best Director – Robert Wise
  • Oscar (winner) Best Sound
  • Oscar (winner) Best Film Editing
  • Oscar (winner) Best Music, Scoring of Music, Adaptation or Treatment

Revenue  – These numbers show the income that the film has earned. [6]

Worldwide Box Office: $286,214,195

Domestic Box Office: $163,214,286

International Box Office: $122,999,909

3. Ben-Hur (1959)

Awards – The following list contains the Oscar winners during the Academy Awards (1960) won by the film. Aside from that, the film has also bagged 18 other awards and nominations. [7]

Academy Awards, USA (1960)

  • Oscar (winner) Best Picture
  • Oscar (winner) Best Actor in a Leading Role – Charlton Heston
  • Oscar (winner) Best Actor in a Supporting Role – Hugh Griffith
  • Oscar (winner) Best Director – Robert Wise
  • Oscar (winner) Best Cinematography, Color
  • Oscar (winner) Best Art Direction; Set Direction, Color
  • Oscar (winner) Best Costume Design
  • Oscar (winner) Best Sound
  • Oscar (winner) Best Film Editing
  • Oscar (winner) Best Effects, Special Effects
  • Oscar (winner) Best Music Score, Scoring of a Dramatic or Comedy Picture

Revenue – The following numbers show the movie’s revenue. [8]

Worldwide Box Office: $73,259,017

Domestic Box Office: $73,000,000

International Box Office: $259,017

4. Cleopatra (1963)

Awards  – The film won 4 Oscar awards during the Academy Awards (1964). In addition, it also bagged an award from the Laurel Awards (1964) and the National Board of Review (1963). [9]

Academy Awards, USA (1964)

  • Oscar (winner) Best Cinematography, Color
  • Oscar (winner) Best Art Direction-Set Decoration, Color
  • Oscar (winner) Best Costume Design, Color
  • Oscar (winner) Best Effects, Special Visual Effects

Revenue – The statistic below shows the cumulated box office records of the film. [10]

Worldwide Box Office: $71,000,000

Domestic Box Office: $57,000,000

International Box Office: $14,000,000

5. The Wizard Of Oz (1939)

Awards – The list below shows the awards that the film bagged during the Academy Awards (1940). Aside from that, it also won 11 other notable recognitions and awards. [11]

Academy Awards, USA (1940)

  • Oscar (winner) Best Musical, Original Song
  • Oscar (winner) Best Music, Original Song

Revenue – The box office records are displayed in the numbers below. [12]

Worldwide Box Office: $34,949,482

Domestic Box Office: $34,685,891

International Box Office: $263,591

What was the Studio System?

The studio system was a business strategy where Hollywood film studios have complete control over the production, distribution, and screening of their films. All actors, crew, directors, and writers were employed by the Big Five studios, which held sway in the industry. It led to effective “assembly-line” filmmaking, which dominated the sector for about two significant decades. [13]

Characteristics of Studio System

  • The theaters where their films were shown belonged to the studios.
  • Studios provided independent theaters with a block of movies known as “block booking,” which mixed desirable films with undesirable ones.
  • Everyone had contracts and received a salary rather than being paid “per film,” including directors and actors. [13]

Supreme Court Killed Hollywood’s Studio System

Over the course of two decades, movie moguls, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Walt Disney, Charlie Chaplin, and the US Supreme Court fought it out in Hollywood’s greatest drama.  On May 4, 1948, the Court issued its decision in the case of United States v. Paramount, concluding that the studios had broken anti-trust laws. This decision dealt a fatal blow to five major studios and three smaller ones. The case’s origins can be traced back to 1921 when worries about the studios and the Sherman Anti-Trust Act first surfaced. [14]

1. Block Booking

When the Supreme Court ruled that the motion picture studios were monopolies in 1930, the Justice Department won the first round of the battle. One important conclusion was that the “block booking” procedure was unlawful. Block booking was a practice where studios required theaters to make bulk purchases of movies, frequently without ever seeing them. However, the studios eventually won Roosevelt’s support after some legal hiccups in 1933. The studios begged President Roosevelt to halt the forced breakup of the monopolies, claiming that the movie industry was in dire straits during the Depression. After all, to escape from difficult times, the country needed movies.

For his justification, Roosevelt cited the National Industrial Recovery Act. However, the Supreme Court overturned the Recovery Act in 1935, and the Justice Department then brought a new lawsuit against the studios in 1938. [14]

2. Dismantled Studio System

Once more, the studios managed to preserve their monopolies. They negotiated a consent decree with the Justice Department in 1940. The movie studios were allowed to keep their theaters for the duration of the three-year trial, but block booking was controlled and theater owners were allowed to preview films before purchasing them. Independent producers like Disney, Chaplin, David Selznick, Mary Pickford, and Orson Welles were furious about the choice. They banded together even though some of them would be named as defendants in the lawsuit due to their work for United Artists, a studio that only distributed movies.

In 1946, the Justice Department reopened the investigation with the assistance of independent producers. The studios’ ability to sell bundles of films was abolished by a federal district court in New York, but the studios were still allowed to keep their theaters. The Supreme Court heard appeals from both sides in the case. The court’s final 1948 decision effectively destroyed the Hollywood studio system. [14]

3. Result

The block booking system was abolished by the court, and the studio-theater monopolies were advised to be broken up, according to Justice William O. Douglas’ opinion. The justices requested that the lower court decide the sale of the theaters. The movie studios’ unity in the case frayed as they regrouped for a new battle in the lower courts or a new agreement with the Justice Department. Howard Hughes, the unconventional studio head of RKO Pictures, decided to sell his movie theaters. The largest studio, Paramount, sold its movie theaters after the Justice Department made it clear that no deals would be made. It was unable to invest in the new fad of television because of its involvement in the antitrust case. The conflict was won. The Paramount case ultimately had a significant impact on the development of television and altered the movie industry. To make up for the losses from the Paramount case, RKO and other studios sold their film libraries to television stations.

Additionally, the studios released actors from their contracts who went on to become new television stars. As more and more people stopped going to movie theaters, television’s audience increased dramatically. Around 90 million people regularly attended movies in 1948. This number decreased to 46 million people by 1958. In 1958, there were 204 million television viewers. [14]

Top Studios

The Big Five 

The Big Five studios, as they will always be referred to, are where it all begins. The traditional Hollywood system was created by these five big film studios. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Warner Bros., Paramount, Fox, and RKO were among them. They were all vertically integrated, which means that they all handled their production, distribution, and exhibition. [13]

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer

MGM, a company based in the United States, was once the biggest and most successful motion picture studio in the world. The 1930s and 1940s were the studio’s golden years. [15] These are the highest-grossing films that they made during the era. These are acknowledged based on the total worldwide box office consisting of the domestic and international box office. [16]

Top 10 Grossing Films of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer

1. Gone with the Wind (1939)

Worldwide Box Office: $390,525,192

Domestic Box Office: $198,680,470

International Box Office: $191,844,722

2. Thunder Ball (1965)

Worldwide Box Office: $141,200,000

Domestic Box Office: $63,600,000

International Box Office: $77,600,000

3. Goldfinger (1964)

Worldwide Box Office: $124,900,000

Domestic Box Office: $51,100,000

International Box Office: $73,800,000

4. Doctor Zhivago (1965)

Worldwide Box Office: $112,040,388

Domestic Box Office: $111,897,830

International Box Office: $142,558

5. You Only Live Twice (1967)

Worldwide Box Office: $111,600,000

Domestic Box Office: $43,100,000

International Box Office: $68,500,000

6. On Her Majesty’s Secret Service (1969)

Worldwide Box Office: $82,000,000

Domestic Box Office: $22,800,000

International Box Office: $59,200,000

7. From Russia With Love (1964)

Worldwide Box Office: $78,900,000

Domestic Box Office: $24,800,000

International Box Office: $54,100,000

8. Ben-Hur (1959)

Worldwide Box Office: $73,259,017

Domestic Box Office: $73,000,000

International Box Office: $259,017

9. 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)

Worldwide Box Office: $71,845,795

Domestic Box Office: $59,936,321

International Box Office: $11,909,474

10. Dr. No (1963)

Worldwide Box Office: $59,567,035

Domestic Box Office: $16,067,035

International Box Office: $43,500,000

Warner Bros.

Warner Bros

Warner Brothers, in full Warner Bros. Entertainment, Inc., formerly called Warner Brothers Pictures, Inc., and Warner Bros., Inc., is an American entertainment conglomerate best known for its film studio. It joined Time Warner Inc. as a subsidiary in 1990. The main office of Warner Brothers is located in Burbank, California. [17] They have produced a lot of films and these are the highest-grossing films based on the worldwide box office through the domestic and international box office during the golden age. [18]

Top 10 Grossing Films of Warner Bros.

1. Bonnie and Clyde (1967)

Worldwide Box Office: $50,700,000

Domestic Box Office: $50,700,000

2. The Wizard of Oz (1939)

Worldwide Box Office: $34,949,482

Domestic Box Office: $34,685,891

International Box Office: $263,591

3. Camelot (1967)

Worldwide Box Office: $31,102,578

Domestic Box Office: $31,102,578

4. Auntie Mame (1958)

Worldwide Box Office: $23,300,000

Domestic Box Office: $23,300,000

5. The Wrong Man (1956)

Worldwide Box Office: $2,000,000

Domestic Box Office: $2,000,000

6. The Prince and the Showgirl (1957)

Worldwide Box Office: $1,600,000

Domestic Box Office: $1,600,000

7. Letyat Zhuravli (1960)

Worldwide Box Office: $17,923

Domestic Box Office: $17,923

8. The Maltese Falcon (1941)

Worldwide Box Office: $15,273

International Box Office: $15,273

9. Band of Angels (1957)

Worldwide Box Office: $6,787

International Box Office: $6,787

10. Sergeant Rutledge (1960)

Worldwide Box Office: $3,058

International Box Office: $3,058

Paramount Pictures

Paramount Pictures

One of the first and most well-known Hollywood film studios is Paramount Pictures or Paramount Pictures Corporation. It joined Viacom as a subsidiary in 1994. [19] This studio impacted the golden age through these highest-grossed films based on worldwide box office consisting the domestic and international box office. [20]

Top 10 Grossing Films of Paramount Pictures

1. Paint Your Wagon (1969)

Worldwide Box Office: $31,678,778

Domestic Box Office: $31,678,778

2. White Christmas (1954)

Worldwide Box Office: $30,001,212

Domestic Box Office: $30,000,000

International Box Office: $1,212

3. The Carpetbaggers

Worldwide Box Office: $28,409,547

Domestic Box Office: $28,409,547

4. Alfie (1966)

Worldwide Box Office: $18,871,300

Domestic Box Office: $18,871,300

5. Blue Skies (1946)

Worldwide Box Office: $14,300,000

Domestic Box Office: $14,300,000

6. Blue Hawaii (1961)

Worldwide Box Office: $10,440,053

Domestic Box Office: $10,440,053

7. Breakfast at Tiffany’s 

Worldwide Box Office: $9,794,721

Domestic Box Office: $9,551,904

International Box Office: $242,817

8. Becket (1964)

Worldwide Box Office: $9,164,370

Domestic Box Office: $9,164,370

9. The Spy Who Came in from the Cold (1965)

Worldwide Box Office: $7,600,342

Domestic Box Office: $7,600,000

International Box Office: $342

10. Once Upon a Time in the West (1969)

Worldwide Box Office: $5,380,513

Domestic Box Office: $5,321,508

International Box Office: $59,005

Fox

20th Century Fox

20th Century Studios, formerly Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation (1935–85) and Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation (1985–2020), is a significant American film studio founded in 1935 as a result of the union of Twentieth Century Pictures and the Fox Film Corporation. It has been a division of the Disney Company since 2019. The corporate office is in Los Angeles. [21] Here are the studio’s highest-grossing films based on the worldwide box office consisting of domestic and international box office, which had an impact on the golden age. [22]

Top 10 Grossing Films of Fox

1. The Sound of Music (1965)

Worldwide Box Office: $286,214,195

Domestic Box Office: $163,214,286

International Box Office: $122,999,909

2. Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969)

Worldwide Box Office: $102,311,313

Domestic Box Office: $102,308,900

International Box Office: $2,413

3. Cleopatra (1963)

Worldwide Box Office: $71,000,000

Domestic Box Office: $57,000,000

International Box Office: $14,000,000

4. The Blue Max (1966)

Worldwide Box Office: $16,151,612

Domestic Box Office: $16,151,612

5. Move Over, Darling (1963)

Worldwide Box Office: $12,705,882

Domestic Box Office: $12,705,882

6. Bandolero! (1968)

Worldwide Box Office: $12,000,000

Domestic Box Office: $12,000,000

7. All About Eve (1965)

Worldwide Box Office: $8,402,304

Domestic Box Office: $8,400,000

International Box Office: $2,304

8. Do Not Disturb (1965)

Worldwide Box Office: $8,000,000

Domestic Box Office: $8,000,000

9. The Undefeated (1969)

Worldwide Box Office: $8,000,000

Domestic Box Office: $8,000,000

10. The Agony and the Ecstasy (1965)

Worldwide Box Office: $8,000,000

Domestic Box Office: $8,000,000

RKO 

RKO Pictures

American motion picture studio RKO Radio Pictures, Inc. produced several well-known movies in the 1930s and 1940s. The Radio Corporation of America, the Keith-Albee-Orpheum theater chain, and the American Pathé production company came together to form Radio-Keith-Orpheum in 1928. RKO struggled with financial stability for much of its 25-year existence despite being one of Hollywood’s major studios. [23] These are the highest-grossing films that they produced during the era. These are based on the total worldwide box office consisting of the domestic and international box office. [24]

Top 10 Grossing Films of RKO

1. Bambi (1942)

Worldwide Box Office: $268,000,000

Domestic Box Office: $102,797,000

International Box Office: $165,203,000

2. Peter Pan (1953)

Worldwide Box Office: $87,400,000

Domestic Box Office: $87,400,000

3. The Best Years of Our Lives (1946)

Worldwide Box Office: $23,600,000

Domestic Box Office: $23,600,000

4. The Bells of St. Mary’s (1945)

Worldwide Box Office: $21,300,000

Domestic Box Office: $21,300,000

5. The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer (1947)

Worldwide Box Office: $8,750,000

Domestic Box Office: $8,750,000

6. Cat People (1942)

Worldwide Box Office: $8,000,000

Domestic Box Office: $4,000,000

International Box Office: $4,000,000

7. Citizen Kane (1942)

Worldwide Box Office: $1,009,201

Domestic Box Office: $1,000,000

International Box Office: $9,201

8. Sudden Fear (1952)

Worldwide Box Office: $24,760

Domestic Box Office: $24,476

International Box Office: $284

9. Fort Apache (1948)

Worldwide Box Office: $9,803

International Box Office: $9,903

10. Swing Time (1936)

Worldwide Box Office: $5,367

International Box Office: $5,367

Top Actors and Actresses

The period known as “Classical Hollywood Cinema” spanned a considerable amount of time. During this era, the public that went to the movies was first introduced to many names that are now legendary. Even decades after their deaths, these actors and actresses continue to captivate audiences with their work. Regardless of how they did it, each of the actors and actresses on this list has made an enduring impression on the film industry, and what they have accomplished is evidence of the magnificence of what is now known as the studio system.

1. Greta Garbo

Greta Garbo

Greta Garbo, a Swedish-born actress, became a global icon and movie star in the 1920s and 1930s. Three times, Garbo was considered for the Best Actress Oscar. After starring in 28 films, she took a break from acting in 1941 at the age of 35. One of the greatest and most mysterious movie stars ever created by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and the Hollywood studio system is thought to be Garbo. [25] [26]

Died: April 15, 1990, Age 84

Net Worth at Death: $32 million

Inflation Adjusted Net Worth: $90 million

2. Cary Grant

Cary Grant

One of the leading men of Hollywood’s Golden Age was Cary Grant. Archie Leach changed his name to Cary Grant in December 1931 after agreeing to a deal with Hollywood’s Paramount Studios. He was the George Clooney of his time—beautiful and charismatic. Men yearned to be him, and women adored him. Vaudeville was where he started his career, and he went on to make 74 movies, including timeless works like The Philadelphia Story and North by Northwest. [25] [27]

Died: November 29, 1986, Age 82

Net Worth at Death: $60 million

Inflation Adjusted Net Worth: $130 million

3. Mae West

Mae West

Mae West was a well-known actress of her time. At the relatively advanced age of 38, West secured a six-year deal with Paramount Studios. She earned $400,000 annually in the early to mid-1930s, equivalent to $7 million today. West was a smart cookie who made investments in Los Angeles real estate, produced musclemen shows in Las Vegas in the 1950s and 1960s, and engaged in other business ventures that raised her net worth aside from acting. [25] [28]

Died: November 22, 1980, Age 87

Net Worth at Death: $20 million

Inflation Adjusted Net Worth: $58 million

4. Charlie Chaplin

Charlie Chaplin

In the silent era, Charlie Chaplin was a leading man whose career lasted 75 years, from his early years in the early 1900s to 1976, the year before his passing. Through his on-screen persona “the Tramp,” Chaplin became a global icon and is regarded as one of the most significant individuals in the history of the motion picture business. After signing his first independent production contract with First National in 1917, the well-known comedian built the Charlie Chaplin Studio. [25] [29]

Died: December 25, 1977, Age 88

Net Worth at Death: $50 million

Inflation Adjusted Net Worth: $197 million

5. Mary Pickford

Mary Pickford

Even though she was Canadian, Mary Pickford was the highest-paid actress of the silent era and was dubbed “America’s Sweetheart.” In 1909, she began working in movies in the US. For her first sound film role in 1929’s Coquette, she received the second-ever Academy Award for Best Actress. The Motion Picture Academy was founded by Mary Pickford, who was also known for her philanthropy. Pickford established the Pickford-Fairbanks Studio before United Artists, where she approved scripts and hired directors, writers, cast members, and crew. The women in the industry today would have been envious of her. [25] [30]

Died: May 29, 1979, Age 87

Net Worth at Death: $40 million

Inflation Adjusted Net Worth: $131.6 million

6. George Randolph Scott

Randolph Scott

The acting career of George Randolph Scott lasted from 1928 to 1962. Despite appearing in many different movies, his work in Westerns is what made him most famous. His roles in more than 100 films included more than 60 Westerns. He made wise financial decisions that increased his acting income. [25]

Died: March 2, 1987, Age 89

Net Worth at Death: $100 million

Inflation Adjusted Net Worth: $220 million

Conclusion

Hollywood experienced significant expansion, innovation, and change during the Golden Age of Hollywood, which helped to elevate Hollywood and its movie stars on a global scale. People from all over the world flocked to Hollywood during this time to pursue careers as actors or actresses. This period is regarded as extremely successful in terms of filmmaking because of the large number of high-quality films that were produced each year as a result of the influx. This period saw the creation of many classic movies, which significantly increased America’s growing sway over the world of cinema. Movie stars were also born during this period.

The years of Hollywood’s Golden Age were crucial in the development of cinema. They developed a significant portion of the technology that was used to produce today’s films. It might not have lasted for more than a few decades, but it left a lasting impression on the entertainment business as a whole. The years of the Golden Age of Hollywood are regarded as a brief but significant period in the history of cinema.

Interesting Facts

  • Humphrey Bogart reportedly had to sit on cushions and stand on boxes in Casablanca because he was two inches shorter than Ingrid Bergman (1942).
  • It’s a Wonderful Life (1946) was filmed in the summer of 1946; on occasion, the heat forced the production to stop for a few days.
  • Sean Connery wore a toupee for the entirety of his time playing James Bond, beginning with the 1962 movie Dr. No.
  • Producer David O. Selznick was fined $5,000 for the profanity in Gone with the Wind’s famous line, “Frankly, my dear, I don’t give a damn.”
  • In addition to being an actor, Lon Chaney also created all of his outrageous makeup for his roles in movies like The Phantom of the Opera and The Hunchback of Notre Dame.
  • Debbie Reynolds cried and hid under a piano as a result of Gene Kelly’s constant criticism of her dancing in the Singin’ in the Rain production. When he heard about the incident, Fred Astaire offered to assist her with her dancing. Later, Kelly acknowledged that he had been rude and expressed his surprise that the actress had spoken to him at all after the filming.
  • Toto the dog received $125 per week while the actors who played the munchkins in The Wizard of Oz received only $50 per week.
  • For the role of Scarlett O’Hara in Gone with the Wind, Lana Turner, Katherine Hepburn, Loretta Young, Helen Hayes, and even Lucille Ball all underwent testing.
  • Wives across the nation stopped purchasing undershirts for their husbands after Clark Gable refused to wear one while filming It Happened One Night (1934). In the 1930s, this led to a decline in undershirts sales.
  • Author Truman Capote chose Marilyn Monroe to play Holly Golightly in Breakfast at Tiffany’s. Audrey Hepburn was chosen to replace Monroe after she declined to star in The Misfits. “Paramount double-crossed me in every way and cast Audrey,” Capote reportedly said.
  • Rita Hayworth’s 1946 movie Gilda, which had just been released, was featured on the fourth atomic bomb ever to go off. Hayworth was enraged and offended by the gesture, even though the name “Gilda” was stenciled above the image to signify her status as a bombshell.
  • Fay Wray anticipated co-starring in King Kong with Cary Grant. Director Merian C. Cooper promised the actress, “You’re going to have the tallest, darkest leading man in Hollywood,” but that leading man was an ape.
  • Kansas forbade the initial screening of Some Like It Hot in the state, claiming that cross-dressing was “too disturbing for Kansas.”
  • Due to a string of failures, Katharine Hepburn was one of many actors dubbed “box office poison” before the massive success of The Philadelphia Story. The movie aided her return to the big screen and the A-list.
  • Rock Hudson had relationships with James Dean and Elizabeth Taylor, his co-stars in the movie Giant. It was said that Rock had won a wager between Taylor and Hudson to see who could have sex with Dean first.
  • Although Elvis Presley’s manager declined the role of Tony in West Side Story, the role was offered to him. Warren Beatty, Burt Reynolds, and Robert Redford were among the other actors who were given consideration. In the end, Richard Beymer was chosen.
  • Marlon Brando was virtually unknown at the time of the play’s casting before it was first released in 1951. After its release, he quickly gained notoriety as a major Hollywood movie star.
  • Gloria Stewart, Jimmy Stewart’s wife, was afraid that Grace Kelly would woo him and prevented him from appearing in Rear Window with her. Before becoming Princess Grace of Monaco, Kelly had a reputation for having affairs with her co-stars, which may or may not be true. Gloria began to feel uneasy, but there was never any conflict between the actors.
  • Throughout the making of Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, Marilyn Monroe and Jane Russell grew close. Monroe earned the moniker “Blondie” from Russell, and he was the only one who could persuade her to leave her trailer when she was too anxious and upset to do so.
  • The “snowstorm” that occurred in The Wizard of Oz was made of asbestos, not snow or cornflakes. During this time, it was a fairly typical practice on film sets.

References:

[1] Alchin, L. (2018, January 9). Golden Age of Hollywood: Movies, Actors and Actresses ***. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from https://www.american-historama.org/1929-1945-depression-ww2-era/golden-age-of-hollywood.htm

[2] When Was the Golden Age of Hollywood? (n.d.). www.studiobinder.com. https://https://www.studiobinder.com/blog/when-was-the-golden-age-of-hollywood/

[3] Gone with the Wind Awards. (n.d.). IMDb.com, Inc. https://m.imdb.com/title/tt0031381/awards/?ref_=tt_awd

[4] Gone with the Wind (1939) – Financial Information. (n.d.). The Numbers. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from https://www.the-numbers.com/movie/Gone-with-the-Wind#tab=summary

[5] The Sound of Music. (n.d.). IMDb. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0059742/awards/

[6] The Sound of Music (1965) – Financial Information. (n.d.). The Numbers. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from https://www.the-numbers.com/movie/Sound-of-Music-The#tab=summary

[7] Ben Hur (1959). (n.d.). IMDb. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from https://m.imdb.com/title/tt0052618/awards/?ref_=tt_awd

[8] Ben-Hur (1959) – Financial Information. (n.d.). The Numbers. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from https://www.the-numbers.com/movie/Ben-Hur-(1959)#tab=summary

[9] Cleopatra. (n.d.). IMDb. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0056937/awards

[10] Cleopatra (1963) – Financial Information. (n.d.). The Numbers. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from https://www.the-numbers.com/movie/Cleopatra-(1963)#tab=summary

[11] The Wizard of Oz. (n.d.). IMDb. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0032138/awards/

[12] The Wizard of Oz (1939) – Financial Information. (n.d.). The Numbers. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from https://www.the-numbers.com/movie/Wizard-of-Oz-The#tab=summary

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