Dogs are among the best pets that many people have at home. They are great companions and can also provide us with lots of entertainment. You can go out for a walk with them or play a game of fetch. There are also dogs who can provide company and assistance to elderly people. For as long as we’ve known them, dogs have been people’s assistants, protectors, hunting buddies, and friends. But have you ever wondered how a single species develops so many talents? Why do you think dogs have become our partners more than any other species?
The answer to these lies not only in their plasticity or their range of sizes and shapes but also in human creativity. It’s because dogs are designer animals that are cut from the fabric of our needs and fashioned to suit almost any purpose, which is done through breeding.
Today, there are many different breeds of dogs to choose from. Some of them are pure breeds while others are a mix of various breeds. With this, have you ever thought about how a new dog breed is created? If you have the same question in mind, we are here to help you. Read on as we are going to provide you more information about dog breeding, including its history, how it works, the steps followed, and how a new breed is recognized.
History of Dog Breeding
Dogs have been by the side of humans since prehistoric times. Based on evidence, 14,000 years ago, dogs were buried alongside people. But at what point do you think humans start to shape dogs through breeding? Dogs today are specialized for herding, guarding, search and rescue, working with children, and many other roles due to their physical and behavioral traits. But how do you think dog breeding progressed from friends and hunters to the different roles we employ them in today?
Let us take a look at the different time periods of dog breeding to further understand the progression of its history.
Prehistoric Dog Breeding
During prehistoric times, dogs were bred not with aesthetics and proportions in mind, but they were still bred for a purpose and human benefit, which was for survival. Back then, humans needed protection and awareness from predators. In addition to that, they also need help when it comes to hunting and foraging.
Even though humans are high-class predators, there was still the risk of being hunted by bigger creatures during prehistoric times. That is why humans decided to breed two types of dogs back then. One is those large enough and strong enough to defend them physically, and the other is sight-hounds that can warn them.
The largest and most defined in muscle individuals were bred with one another to produce the strongest offspring. They were quickly bonded with and trained to be the first kind of guard dogs. On the other hand, dogs that had quick reactions and narrow frames that were good for running were bred to be sight-hounds or alarm dogs of the prehistoric era. They were able to alert humans when a predator was spotted to give humans a chance to run or grab weapons.
Aside from being protectors of humans from predators, dogs were also bred for hunting. Those that were light on their feet, agile, and had strong jaws and claws were ideal hunting dogs. They were needed by humans when it came to chasing prey and taking them down. Having a dog that is fast and quiet was great as they are not detected by the prey they are stalking.
Hunting dogs could also attack their prey fast without causing them to run off. This is where their claws and teeth came in. Their large teeth can clamp around their prey’s throat, and their claws can attack their prey and bring them down fast.
Active Dogs Breeding
Back in prehistoric times, the understanding of dog breeding was oriented around physical traits. However, as time passed, hunting became easier for humans as tools were invented, and predators decreased in size. This means that we did not need the same types of dogs that they had in the prehistoric era. This was the time when humans started to breed dogs to be more docile and to have companions or work dogs.
The original aggression and strength that dogs possessed were not often needed anymore. With this, all dogs change in appearance, and they mainly become smaller and less muscular. But there were still some that were bred secretly for aggression and strength and were used for blood sports.
As years passed, humans developed industries and careers like farming and policing. These careers held possible roles for dogs to become useful. All of these jobs needed control. Therefore, breeding more docile dogs has become the norm. One of the key roles for dogs was herding on farms. This task needed dogs that were controlled and calm to avoid harming the livestock. Physically, dogs need to be agile and active so they can run around the animals to herd them.
In addition to that, another job role for dogs is gathering fish after fishing or birds after hunting. In fact, the original purpose of Labradors was to collect fish. That is why they had webbed toes, more waterproof coats, and strong legs for swimming. Having a dog to gather and bring back prizes from a hunt made gathering easier because less noise was caused to prevent the prey from being startled. It also helped hunters to save time and energy.
Lastly, a lot of dogs were bred for companionship. Humans have adored dogs for many years and have bred them quickly to be appropriate for our homes, families, and lifestyles. These dogs are those that are calm around kids, playful, gentle, and enjoy attention.
Kennel Clubs Establishment
In the mid-19th century, Kennel Clubs were created to identify breed types, monitor bloodlines, and create organized management over legitimate dog breeding. During this time period, dog breeding became popular. Careers were made purely around breeding and selling dogs.
Standards for dog breeding were also created, along with registries and registering rules. This meant that dogs were held to a higher standard than ever before. Only individuals who had proof of pure bloodlines and met breed standards were registered. This would have influenced reputation, selling prices, and advertising, which are things that can make or break a breeder.
Originally, kennel clubs were established for specific areas, such as the American Kennel Club (AKC) and the British Kennel Club (KC). These clubs held up the standard for each breed. For example, the Labrador should be short-coupled, with a good spring of ribs tapering to a moderately wide chest. There are sets of breed standards that concern the general appearance of each breed, including its head, body, coat, hindquarters, and forequarters. Even though a breed has a general standard, as time passed, specific standards were made to dictate the ideal specimen for each type of breed.
Soon, kennel clubs branched out to have breed-specific clubs. They combine breeders and those interested in buying and caring for the breed into one place. There were also many smaller clubs that were made across a large period of time, as each breed should be agreed upon by the main representative club, which in the US is the AKC. Breed characteristics need to be established and agreed upon first before smaller clubs can represent them as a true breed.
Breeding for Dog Shows
After the establishment of Kennel Clubs, dog shows followed. These are competitions that idealize specific exaggerated features or the “ideal” dog of a certain breed that matches the desired criteria. Aside from that, there are also other shows that crown dogs for exceeding in physical agility challenges and training challenges.
Physical and behavioral traits are also bred for by breeders in order to create ideal show dog puppies. Dogs that have more speed, energy, and general agility are bred for agility shows. On the other hand, those that have strong human bonds, easily trainable temperaments, and control are best for training and trick shows.
At the present time, most humans live with more than 400 dog breeds recognized by Kennel Clubs around the world. Many of those dogs still do work for which they have been bred for centuries or even millennia. But most of them live with people as companions, which is perhaps the most important job of all. 
How Does Dog Breeding Work?
People who love dogs are probably aware of the specific characteristics of different breeds. For instance, dog lovers know that Dalmatians are hyper, Labrador Retrievers are friendly, and Australian Shepherds are smart. They also possibly know that Dalmatians are susceptible to kidney stones and Labradors are at risk for hip dysplasia. 
Dog breeding is a decisive bringing together of a stud and a bitch during the fertile portion of the bitch’s heat cycle for the animals to mate and produce a litter. Dog breeding should not be undertaken lightly, as there are thousands of unwanted pets that are in need of a stable and loving home. Therefore, any breeding should be given ample consideration before you decide to proceed. 
Dog Breeding Terms
When discussing dog breeding, there are a lot of terms that you need to know in order to understand the process well. Below are some of the common terms and definitions that may provide you with important dog breeding information to better understand the process: 
Bitch: This term pertains to a female dog.
Dam: The designation given to the mother of a litter.
Stud: The male dog that performs the breeding on the bitch.
Sire: The designation given to the father of the litter.
Litter: A group of puppies that are born from the same pregnancy.
Heat Cycle: The active period of the reproductive cycle of a bitch. This is characterized by a bloody discharge, the release of eggs for fertilization, and a period of active willingness to breed.
Ovaries: The reproductive organs that release the ovum for fertilization during a bitch’s heat cycle.
Eggs: The common term for reproductive cells that are made when the ovum is released from the ovaries and fertilized by sperm.
Sperm: Minute organisms produced by the male that fertilize the eggs of the bitch and deliver the DNA of the stud.
Vulva: The opening to the reproductive tract of the bitch. It swells considerably at the start of the heat cycle and then softens to facilitate breeding.
Penis and Testicles: The reproductive organs of the stud that are designed to produce and deliver sperm.
Gestation: The whole period of pregnancy.
Whelp: A term that describes a newborn pup.
Whelping: The act of giving birth or also known as labor.
Whelping Box: A prepared box where the bitch gives birth.
Contractions: Spasms of the uterus designed to propel the pup along the birth canal toward delivery.
Water Bag: The thin but durable membrane or birth sac that surrounds each puppy in utero.
Umbilical Cord: The fleshy cord attached between a pup’s abdomen and the placenta.
Uterus: The organ where the embryo attaches and grows throughout the pregnancy.
Placenta: The organ that attaches each embryo to the uterine wall, supporting the pup’s growth and development by delivering oxygen and nutrients.
Line Breeding: A planned breeding between family members used to secure desirable qualities in the progeny.
Inbreeding: The breeding between closely related dogs, such as mother/son, father/daughter, full-brother/full-sister. This type is undesirable and often produces congenital defects in the pups.
Outcrossing: Breeding between two non-related dogs.
Tie: The swelling near the base of the dog’s penis that binds the dog to the bitch temporarily during intercourse. It helps ensure the proper delivery of semen and increases the chance of fertilization.
Types of Dog Breeding Techniques
Types of Dog Breeding Techniques
|Dog Breeding Technique||Description|
|Random Breeding||Type of dog breeding that happens by accident or inattention and may occur with aother dog at home, or when a dog wanders outside on its own during its heat season.|
|Selective Breeding||A dog breeder chooses the possible best partner for its dog. It involves choosing a specific kind of dog to breed specific characteristics like traits, functional abilities, and physical features.|
|True or Pure Breeding||A breeding technique used to produce high-quality purebred dogs. It involves breeding two purebred dogs to give birth to puppies with the same characteristics as its parents.|
|Inbreeding||A breeding technique wherein two genetically related dogs mate.|
|Linebreeding / Linecrossing||A type of inbreeding that aims to reserve the best genes of a bloodline while maintaining enough genetic diversity.|
|Back Breeding||Another type of inbreeding wherein two dogs that are closely related to each other genetically are paired. A high-quality stud mates with another partner, and then mates again with the strongest puppy from the litter.|
|Grading Up||A type of selective dog breeding that involves mating a dog from an exceptional bloodline and outstanding features with an average dog. It results in higher quality litter of puppies where the breeder then picks the best one to pair with the original dog and produce an even better litter.|
|Outcrossing||A common breeding technique that involves mating two unrelated dogs from the same breed.|
|Crossbreeding||The mixing of two dogs from two recognized breeds. However, mix breeds that result from this type of breeding are not recognized as breeds in their own right.|
|Hybrid-Breeding||A hybrid dog is a result of mating two purebred dogs. They have a bigger gene pool, making them healthier than purebred dogs.|
There are specific dog breeding techniques that you need to learn about in order to understand how dog breeding really works. Below are the different types of dog breeding techniques:
Random breeding, unfortunately, is the most common type of breeding as it happens by accident or inattention. This can occur with another dog at home or if a dog wanders outside on its own when it is heat season. Random breeding usually results in undesired pregnancies. 
During the heat of female dogs, they release powerful pheromones that can attract males from several kilometers away. When this effect is combined with the inattention that many owners are guilty of, random breeding may occur. Since it happens by accident, there is no planning or meticulous selection of the partner. This can give origin to different crosses or mixes.
When the dog breeder is involved in choosing the possible best partner for its dog, it is referred to as selective breeding. A lot of dog breeding techniques fall under this category as it involves selecting a specific kind of stud or bitch to breed specific characteristics. These include particular temperament traits, functional abilities, and physical features.
Selective breeding needs specialized knowledge of breeding and canine genetics to get desirable results. This involves analyzing the bloodline and ancestors of the dog and health certificates that ensure it does not have any congenital disease. 
Humans have been doing this technique for centuries, and it helped us create breeds for specific purposes. It has also yielded noticeable changes in the shape, size, and structure of canine brains.
True or Pure Breeding
This breeding technique is used to produce high-quality purebred dogs. It encompasses breeding two purebred dogs to give birth to a puppy that has the same characteristics as its parents. This is due to the fact that each breed contains a unique set of genes. Pure Breeding also permits breeders to forecast particular behaviors of the nature of the dog and its possible manners. This is great if you want a dog that will help you with certain tasks.
If you are planning to conduct Pure Breeding, it needs a thoughtful and complete study of the lineages of both dogs to determine their purity and assess if they are ideal for breeding purposes. The goal of true breeding is to mix two bloodlines of excellent qualities in order to create puppies that come as close as possible to the ideal standards of the breed. Therefore, both the bitch and the stud should comply with such requirements. 
The challenge of this technique to breeders is they need to evaluate the good and bad aspects of the bloodline. These include possible health issues and genetic defects. It’s because the main purpose of true breeding is to eliminate these issues and maintain or improve the breed.
Inbreeding occurs when two genetically related dogs mate. These can involve mating siblings or cousins. With this, both dogs have very similar genetic material. There are various types of inbreeding, such as grading up and back breeding. Since the dogs are closely related to each other genetically, the breeder will be able to predict with more inevitability the traits and features of the litter.
However, the dark side of inbreeding is that it has increased the quantity of inbreeding for several breeds, provoking problems for male and female fertility, litter size, and composition. For instance, a study found that inbred studs produce lower-quality ejaculates compared to outbred studs. 
Aside from that, there are also risks that can destroy the quality of the litter when inbreeding is done. This can decrease the litter size and distress the vigor of the puppies by shortening their lifecycle and making them more susceptible to inherited diseases. The closer the dogs are, the higher the risks of experiencing health issues.
Linebreeding / Linecrossing
This technique also falls under inbreeding. However, unlike close inbreeding, this technique aims to reserve the best genes of a bloodline while maintaining enough genetic diversity. This technique is carried out by pairing dogs that are cousins and uncles to nieces. It is more complex compared to other types of inbreeding. 
Back Breeding also falls under inbreeding as it includes coupling two dogs that are closely linked to each other genetically. It mates a high-quality stud with another partner, which is then mated with the strongest puppy from the litter. The breeders repeat the process again, breeding the original stud with the strongest specimen for the second-generation litter. 
This technique is great if you wish to perfect the hereditary traits of a dog with an outstanding bloodline and quality. However, since it still falls in the realm of inbreeding, it can still present risks like genetic mutations, health issues, and decreased quality of the litter. A lot of monitoring and careful analysis are needed for this dog breeding technique.
This is a selective dog breeding method that involves mating a dog from an exceptional bloodline and outstanding features with an average dog. As a result, the breeder can get a litter of higher quality. The breeder then picks the best dog from the litter to pair with the original dog and produce an even better litter. 
In this technique, the selection of the high-quality stud is important. You need to look for a bloodline that has the traits and characteristics you want to transmit to the new specimens. The process is repeated multiple times in order to upgrade each new generation and make them as purebred as possible. It also falls in the realm of inbreeding as it involves mating two dogs that are genetically close.
This is a common technique when a breeder wants to increase the levels of genetic diversity of a dog’s bloodline, as it involves mating two unrelated dogs from the same breed. It is a popular way to reduce inbreeding levels or even reset them.
Outcrossing is also done by breeders if they wish to introduce desirable traits from another bloodline into the bloodline of their dog. With this, it is important to analyze each bloodline carefully and learn about the characteristics of their ancestors, detect possible congenital health issues and problems, and evaluate show quality. 
This is a dog breeding strategy that involves the mixing of two dogs from two recognized breeds. For instance, breeding a Poodle with a Maltese dog gives a cross as a result. Some also call the result of crossbreeding a designer dog. The mixes that result from this type of breeding are not recognized as breeds in their own right. That is why they call it under the term cross.
This breeding technique has been present in the canine world since the 14th century. It is a great way to integrate desirable traits from different dogs into one pup. At the present time, crossbreeding has become more popular as it enables buyers to pick from a wide variety of interesting mixes. 
Some examples are the Boxador, which is the crossbreed of a Boxer and a Labrador, and the Aussiedor, which is the crossbreed of an Australian Shepherd and a Labrador. It combines the positive temperament traits of both breeds, which make them ideal family dogs.
A hybrid dog belongs to the first-generation offspring. It is a result of mating two purebred dogs. Hybrid dogs have a bigger gene pool, which brings them a unique trait called hybrid vigor. This makes them healthier compared to purebred dogs, particularly if they have a high coefficient of inbreeding.
For the most part, hybrid dogs, designer dogs, and crossbred dogs are the same. Their only difference is that the term hybrid is only used for the first-generation litter. Hybrid breeding is beneficial in creating dogs with unique features, such as being hypoallergenic and smaller. It allows breeders to cater to a unique segment of the market as they are able to create dog breeds that have highly sought-after features. But it also needs careful analysis of each breed and bloodline in order to get the most desirable results. 
Steps Followed in Dog Breeding
Responsible Dog Breeding Steps
|Step 1: Preparation||When you decide to breed dogs, it should begin with knowledge. Devote your time to learning as much as you can about the breed first and the rules of the American Kennel Club. Study the standard of the breed, attend dog events, and do some research.|
|Step 2: Breed to Improve||In dog breeding, the main goal should be to improve the breed and not just to increase the number. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate the good and bad points of your dog before you decide to breed.|
|Step 3: Understand the Commitment||Becoming a dog breeder is a full-time job as you will need to take good care of the puppies and raise them well. The cost of raising puppies can also be very high.|
|Step 4: Pick an Appropriate Mate||Both the male and female dogs should be AKC registered for their puppies to be entitled to be registered too. Ensure that the mate for your pet has good qualities that will help improve the breed. Health and temperament are two important factors you need to consider.|
|Step 5: Determine Genetics||Choose a mating pair not only on the basis of the looks but also on understanding the genes and how they affect the looks and traits of the puppies. Therefore, make sure to study the pedigrees of the mating pair.|
|Step 6: Finalize a Stud Contract||Once you found the best mate for your dog, work out the details of the mating. Create a contract with the owner of the other dog before the breeding takes place. The contract should have all the circumstances and obligations, including compensations.|
|Step 7: Pre-Breeding Health Checks||Before mating, both dogs need long-term pre-breeding care or conditioning. This way, they will be able to produce the best offspring. These include regular vet care, genetic screening, pre-breeding tests, regular exercise, and good nutrition.|
|Step 8: Mating||Decide whether the dogs will undergo the natural method of breeding or undergo artificial insemination. Both of these are accepted by the AKC, but they require DNA certification for artificial inseminetion.|
|Step 9: Pregnancy and Whelping Preparation||Look out for signs of pregnancy, such a increase in appetite, weight gain, and nipple size. At 28 days, the vet can perform ultrasound and X-rays to confirm pregnancy. The vet will also inform you about special feeding needs and what to expect during pregnancy, labor, and birth.|
|Step 10: Birth of Puppies||Most female dogs can give birth without any help from humans. But it is still better to monitor her while giving birth. Check if the number of placentas delivered matches the number of puppies. You also need to take over if the female dog dies not tear the sac membrane of each puppy and sever the umbilical cord to ensure that the puppies will be able to breathe.|
|Step 11: Consult Your Vet for Any Issues||If there are any signs of pain, strong contractions without delivary of a pup, shivering, trembling, collapse, and other unusual symptoms during the birth of the puppies, contact your vet immediately.|
|Step 12: Caring for the Puppies and their Mother||You need to keep the puppies warm, fed, and clean. Look after the mother dog too by providing her healthy foods and vitamins. If the mother dog is unable to nurse her puppies, you need to hand feed them and let them drin commercial puppy formula.|
|Step 13: Register the Puppies with AKC||This is an important step so that the new owners of the puppies will be offered with different services, events, and information sponsored by the AKC.|
|Step 14: Wean the Puppies from their Mother||Weaning can begin around two to four weeks of age. You can provide the puppies with a pain of puppy formula or mix the puppy formula with some presoaked or crushed dry puppy food.|
|Step 15: Screen New Puppy Owners||It is important to choose the best owners for the puppies. Screen and evaluate the new puppy owners well to ensure that the puppies will be treated well and be well taken care of by their new families.|
Dog breeding is a fulfilling and exciting task. However, you need to understand the responsibilities and risks that dog breeders face in the process of dog breeding. It is true that having a bunch of puppies running around is fun and entertaining, but they also need a lot of work and attention. That is why if you are thinking of breeding dogs, you need to ensure that you are really prepared for the job. It is very important to do your research and assess yourself if you are ready and fit to be a dog breeder.
Keep in mind that you need to have the right reasons when it comes to breeding dogs. You should not breed dogs to sell them as pets, as it is not a profitable or responsible way to breed. It only creates a market that drives a lot of puppy farms across the United States. You need to be responsible and avoid contributing to the pet overpopulation problem.
If you are really decided to become a dog breeder, below are some of the steps provided by the American Kennel Club for responsible dog breeding:
Step 1: Be Prepared for Breeding a Litter of Puppies
For many centuries, dog breeding has been a passion for many people. It is something that can show you all the best in the human-and-do bond, which is challenging and exciting. Remember that breeding purebred dogs is time-consuming, expensive, and sometimes heartbreaking. If you decide to breed dogs, your goal should be to improve the breed and not just increase its numbers. 
As we’ve mentioned earlier, breeding dogs should start with knowledge. You need to devote your time to learning as much as you can about the breed, canine health, training, and the rules of the American Kennel Club. There are three important things that you can do to prepare yourself. These include studying the standard of your breed, attending dog events, and reading or researching.
Step 2: Follow the Motto “Breed to Improve”
While it is true that every dog is the best dog to its owner, if you are going to become a dog breeder, you need to step back and evaluate the good and bad points of your dog before you decide to breed.
Make sure that you examine your dog carefully and determine its defects. If you choose to continue with the breeding process, ensure that you search for a mate that will eliminate or balance the flaws of your pet. 
Step 3: Understand the Commitment
Always remember that raising puppies is a full-time job. In the first two weeks, the puppies’ mother usually takes care of the needs of the puppies. However, there are times when complications may arise. With this, it is the dog breeder’s responsibility to give a safe, warm, and dry place for the puppies. 
Once the puppies are weaned, it gives you even more work as you need to feed them more, clean them up, groom them, train them, and bring them to the vet regularly. You also need to consider the financial cost of having a litter of puppies to take care of. The price of whelping and raising puppies can be very high, particularly if issues arise.
Step 4: Choose an Appropriate Mate for Your Pet
The very first thing that you need to consider when picking a mating pair is to make sure that both the male and female dogs are AKC registered. If both of them are, then the litter is entitled to be registered with the AKC.
When choosing a mate for your pet, you need to make sure that they complement one another. Pick a dog whose bloodlines will strengthen your pet’s weaknesses and emphasize its good qualities. For example, if the coat of your dog is not as great as it might be, then try to pick a dog with a good coat from a group of dogs with good coats. 
Two of the important factors that you need to keep in mind when choosing a mate are health and temperament. While temperament is a hereditary trait in dogs, it can still be influenced by other external factors. Never consider breeding a dog with a dubious temperament.
Step 5: Determine the Genetics
In order to become an effective and responsible breeder, having a basic understanding of the science of genetics is vital. All your prospective puppies’ health, looks, temperament, and soundness will be determined by the genes passed on by their parents. Therefore, choosing a mating pair should not be made merely on the basis of the dog’s looks but as well as on an understanding of how the genes affected its looks and of how those genes are transferred on and expressed. That is why it is very important to study the pedigrees of the mating pair. 
Step 6: Finalize a Stud Contract
If you have already done all the needed genetic screenings and health checks and have chosen the best mate for your dog, it is then time to work out the details of the mating. It is best if you can work out a contract with the owner of the stud dog before the breeding takes place. The contract needs to include all obligations and circumstances, and it should be signed by all parties to the transaction. Each of you should also receive a copy of it. Consulting a lawyer for this can also be great, as they can help you draft a suitable contract. 
The dog owner also sets the stud fee, and the payment method may vary. The owner may demand a cash fee, one or more puppies from the litter, or other similar ways of compensation. The contract may also state that the sire or female dog’s owner is not obliged to sign an AKC litter registration request until the stud payment has been given. Remember that the AKC cannot settle disputes when it comes to contracts and breeding arrangements.
Step 7: Do Pre-Breeding Health Checks
Both dogs that will mate need long-term pre-breeding care, which is also called conditioning by some people. This will help ensure that they will produce the best offspring. Pre-breeding health checks include regular veterinary care, screening for genetic problems, pre-breeding tests, good nutrition, and regular exercise. Female dogs should not be overweight, and they need to have good muscle tone before breeding. They should also be in a good mental condition and not insecure or snappy. 
A month before mating, the female dog needs to undergo a thorough pre-breeding physical exam, which is done by a vet who is well-versed in and supportive of canine reproduction. The dog needs to have current vaccinations and be tested and treated for parasites.
Step 8: Mating
This is the step where you will decide the method of dog breeding. Dog breeding can be done either naturally or through artificial insemination.
Natural dog breeding happens between the stud and the bitch with little or no human interference. The male mounts the bitch from behind and commences to mate with her. In this method, the sperm is delivered during the period of the “tie.” However, some sperm may be delivered before that moment.
The sperm travels deeper and either meets up with the ovum for fertilization or attaches itself to the uterine wall and waits for the chemical or hormonal signal that informs them that the ovum has been released. The sperm will race toward the ovum in an effort to be the first one to fertilize them. When a sperm fertilizes an egg, no other sperm can penetrate it. The fertilized eggs implant themselves at intervals along the uterine horns, where they will continue to develop until it is time for delivery. 
If natural breeding is impossible or undesirable, artificial breeding can be done. A veterinarian collects sperm from a male dog and uses a syringe equipped with a catheter to deliver the sperm to the uterus of the female dog. The catheter is threaded into the vulva while avoiding the bladder. The sperm will be expelled slowly, and the female dog is kept quiet for about an hour to make sure the sperm reach their destination. If the process goes well, fertilization will take place, and a litter will develop. 
The AKC admits registration of a litter bred by artificial insemination using fresh semen, fresh extended semen, and frozen semen, given appropriate procedures are followed. But the registration of these litters needs DNA certification.
Step 9: Preparation for Pregnancy and Whelping
After mating has been done, it is now time to prepare for pregnancy and whelping. The gestation of dogs lasts about 63 days. Some of the signs of pregnancy include an increase in appetite, weight gain, and nipple size. But a female dog with false pregnancy may also show these signs. To confirm pregnancy, a vet can perform abdominal palpitation at 28 days or through ultrasound and X-rays. When pregnancy is confirmed, ask your vet about special feeding needs and what you should expect during pregnancy, labor, and birth.
It is also great if you can build a whelping box in advance so the female dog has time to become accustomed to it. A whelping environment should be dry, warm, quiet, and draft-free. It also needs to be away from all other dogs. The whelping box should be spacious and has low sides that you can easily reach in.
You should also be alert for signs of labor. Days before the female dog is ready to give birth, she may start building a nest where she plans to have her puppies and may also stop eating. Before whelping, the female dog’s body temperature will drop to 99 degrees or lower. About 24 hours after the temperature drops, it is projected to enter the first stage of labor. 
It is very important to have your veterinarian’s phone number, as well as the contact number of your emergency veterinary clinic.
Step 10: Birth of Puppies
Most female dogs can give birth without any help from humans. Each puppy emerges in its own sac or placental membrane. This should be removed before the puppy can breathe. The mother dog often takes care of this by tearing off or eating the membrane and then severs the umbilical cord. After giving birth, she will lick each puppy to stimulate its breathing.
You need to check how many placentas are delivered and make sure that the number matches the number of puppies. It’s because a retained placenta may cause problems for the mother dog. If the dog neglects to remove a sac or sever an umbilical cord, you need to take over. A puppy can only remain inside the sac for a few minutes before the oxygen supply depletes. Tear the sac membrane near the head of the puppy and peel it backward and remove the puppy gently. Clear away the mucus and fluids from the nose and mouth of the puppy using a towel to stimulate circulation. 
It is also important for the puppies to suckle as soon as possible for them to ingest colostrum, which is a milk-like substance that contains maternal antibodies produced in the mammary glands after birth. This will help them fight infections as their own immune systems develop. Ensure that you track the nourishment of the puppies and weigh them during the first two weeks.
Step 11: Consult Your Vet for Any Complications
If you notice any issues, call your veterinarian immediately. These may include any signs of extreme pain, strong contractions that last for more than 45 minutes without delivery of a pup, shivering, trembling, or collapse, more than two hours elapsing between puppies with or without contractions, and no signs of labor by the 64th day after the female dog’s last mating. 
Step 12: Taking Care of the Puppies and Their Mother
It is the dog breeder’s responsibility to care for the puppies. You need to keep them warm, fed, and clean. Remember that newborn puppies are unable to control their body temperatures. Therefore, you need to keep them in a warm environment of between 85 to 90 degrees for the first five days of their lives. You can gradually reduce the temperature to 80 degrees from the seventh to the tenth day and down to 75 degrees by the end of the fourth week.
Aside from the puppies, you also need to look after the female dog who gave birth. Some of them eat very little on the first day or two after whelping. After that, their appetite and need for all nutrients increases and peaks in about three weeks. During this period, they need to have enough calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus to prevent the onset of eclampsia. After whelping, the female dog needs to be around the same weight as when she was bred. 
If the mother dog is unable or unwilling to nurse her puppies, they need to be hand fed. Instead of using cow’s milk, which is a poor substitute for canine milk, you can instead provide them with a commercial puppy formula. Keep in mind that puppies grow fast. Therefore, you should weigh them daily in order to know how much you need to feed them.
Step 13: Register the Puppies with AKC After Whelping
One important task of a dog breeder is registering the litter with the AKC. Doing this also opens the door for the new owners of the puppies to the wide variety of services, events, and information sponsored by the AKC.
At the time a puppy is sold, you need to provide the new owners with a registration application. With this, it is vital that you apply to register the puppies promptly after they are born. It is also another way to give the puppies a great start in life, and it confirms for the new owners that you are a dedicated and responsible dog breeder. 
Step 14: Wean Puppies from their Mother
Most puppies start the weaning process at around two to four weeks of age. Some breeders advise starting them off by giving a pan of puppy formula instead of the mother’s milk. Other breeders, on the other hand, mix the puppy formula with some pre soaked or crushed dry puppy food. As the puppies get older, breeders may add more food and reduce the amount of formula. It is important to introduce all changes in food or feeding schedules slowly to prevent digestive upsets. 
Step 15: Screen New Puppy Owners
Responsible dog breeders always ensure that their puppies go to good homes and owners. Therefore, careful screening and evaluation of each person or family interested in getting a puppy are very important. You need to ask them the right questions in order to determine whether they are suitable to be new puppy owners.
You can ask them why they want a dog, and why they chose that specific breed and who will be responsible for the dog’s care. Aside from that, it is also important to know if they will have enough time to meet the needs of the puppy, such as feeding, training, and exercise. Try to ask if any family member has allergies and how often people are at home.
The responsibility of dog breeders does not end when their puppies leave with new owners. You need to ensure that the new families of your puppies know they can reach out to you with any questions or issues that may arise throughout the puppies’ lives. You need to be there to support, answer questions, provide resources, and assist with problems. You also have to assist in re-homing or taking their puppies back into your care should the need arise. 
It is also great if you can create a contract when you find the right puppy owners. Include any health guarantees that you are giving and what the limitations may be. You can also state that the family needs to return the puppy to you should they be unable to keep it for any time during the pet’s life. 
How to Create a New Dog Breed
How to Create a New Dog Breed
|Step 1: Draft the Experimental Standard of Your Dog Breed||Create an outline that shows exactly what you want your dog to achieve when it comes to traits and characteristics. Be realistic and specfic. Think in terms of genes and traits, such as whether you want the breed to have long and strong legs so that it can run fast, etc.|
|Step 2: Decide Between New Breed or New Bloodline||When creating a new dog breed, you need to be very specific and choose the best existing breeds that will come closest to what you need. You can also choose to start a new bloodline, but it only means continuing from an existing breed and not creating a whole unique unit.|
|Step 3: Find the Founding Dogs and Begin Breeding||If you choose to create a new dog breed, you need to search for the founding dogs that you wish to breed. These are the dogs that will give birth to the first few generations of your breeding program. Pick a group of dogs that have the traits you need and narrow down your options until you find the best pair.|
|Step 4: Catiously Grade Up and Linebreed||After finding your founding dogs, you can begin the breeding process. A lot of patience and consistency is needed in this step as it takes several generations and years before you achieve your goal. Begin breeding your founding dogs by following the responsible breeding steps. Monitor the traits produced and pick which ones are the closest to your standard. The ones that will meet your standards will continue to be bred until you achieve the new dog breed you are aiming for.|
Many people breed dogs that are already recognized by kennel clubs. This means that after the puppies are born, they can be easily registered in clubs. However, there are different steps that you need to take if your goal is to create a new dog breed.
In order to create a new dog breed, a dog breeder needs to establish a set of clearly measurable and visible traits, which is known as the breed standard. This is a list of characteristics that formally describe the breed to an audience. Aside from that, the new dog breed needs to be built up by the breeder over several generations, and this generally takes decades. The aim of a new breed is to be officially recognized by the American Kennel Club.
Creating a new dog breed requires a lot of patience and consistency. If you are curious to learn about the steps in creating a new dog breed, read below: 
Step 1: Draft the Experimental Standard of Your Dog Breed
Knowing what you want to create is the most important task in creating a new dog breed. This is what will make or break your success in the dog breeding business. This should include what traits you are breeding for, for what purpose, and which dogs are going to give you the leverage to complete your goal. In this step, you need to outline exactly what you want your dog to achieve in terms of desired traits and characteristics.
When drafting your standard, do not be too generic. For instance, if you are aiming to create a faster dog, how will you breed to get a fast breed? You need to breed for the corresponding traits that will program the dog genetically to perform tasks. Therefore, in this case, you have to find a dog that has strong legs or long legs. Always be realistic in your approach and think in terms of genes and traits and not just a general idea.
Step 2: New Breed or New Bloodline?
It is an exciting experience for dog breeders to choose to go their own route in creating a breed. When choosing, always keep in mind the genetics. A new dog breed is very specific, and the result of creating one is a group of dogs with all the same phenotypes that will distinguish your dog from all the others. After having your ideal specimen in mind, start selecting which of the existing breeds will come closest to what you need.
In this step, you have to determine whether a breed is what you really want, or maybe you may benefit more from starting a new bloodline. As we’ve mentioned earlier, linebreeding is a way to create a superior class of specimens that come as close as possible to the breed standard. Creating a new bloodline means continuing from an existing breed and not making an entirely unique unit.
Step 3: Search for the Founding Dogs and Start Breeding
If you have chosen to create a new breed, you need to get things organized. It is essential that any dog breeder be knowledgeable about the business before starting. Make sure that you study different books and materials that are related to population genetics and breeding practices. Once you become knowledgeable in this, you can begin searching for your ideal candidates.
Start hunting for the founding dogs you wish to breed. These are the dogs that will give birth to the first few generations of your breeding program. It will be easier if you pick a group of dogs that have the traits you are searching for and then narrow down your options from there. Attending dog shows may also help you choose. Make sure that you will choose dogs that do not have any history of diseases and have a well-rounded pedigree.
Step 4: Grade Up and Linebreed Cautiously
When you’ve found your founding dogs, you are now ready to start the breeding process. In this step, you need to have a lot of patience and assurance, as it will ultimately be a numbers game. This step will require you to select and reject certain dogs. This is a process that takes several generations, and it is mainly based on and dependent on consistency.
You will begin with your founding dogs and breed them through the dog breeding steps we discussed earlier. With each breeding, it is important to monitor closely the traits produced and decide which ones are the closest to your ideal specimen. You need to be merciless in deciding as this is going to set the future for generations of dogs to come. The ones that will meet your guideline standards are going to be used to continue the breeding process.
It is normal to have dogs that do not match your standards. It is also important to keep track of historical records of the breeding and their results. You need to have enough hindsight on the last mating and the selection of partners chosen for each sire. Therefore, waiting a few years before breeding a new generation is recommended.
In addition to that, you also have to keep records of which dogs were mated together, the traits and characteristics that were favored, and the ones unfavored and null. All of these will serve to shape your official standard. 
How is a New Dog Breed Recognized?
How is a New Dog Breed Recognized?
|Step 1: Foundation Stock Service (FSS)||The Foundation Stock Service or FSS is the first step toward the recognition of a new breed. You can request your dog breed to enter the FSS. But the breed should be documented by a legitimate foreign or domestic registry. If it is bred in the US, it needs to have a documented history and pedigrees that goes back at least 40 years.|
|Step 2: Miscellaneous Class||The final step before a dog breed is recognized by the AKC is by being in the Miscellaneous class. To move into this class, a dog breed needs to have a minimum of 150 dogs with three-generation pedigress in its studbook, a feasible breed standard, and a club that will represent it as its parent club in the US.|
|How Long Does It Take for a New Breed to Be Recognized by the AKC?||The amount of time depends on certain critera, such as having a rational number of club members in good standing and ten dogs owned by members with Certificate of Merit titles earned in the Miscellaneous class at AKC shows. It make take as fast as six months or as long as a decade or even longer.|
Let us say that you’ve achieved creating a new dog breed. The next important step after this is getting that new breed to be recognized by the kennel club in your country. How do you think a new dog breed is recognized?
Currently, in the United States, the American Kennel Club (AKC) is the largest purebred dog registry. It now registers 200 breeds, which represent a wide variety of colors, sizes, temperaments, coats, and heritages. 
Internationally, there are about 400 breeds that are listed with registry organizations in other countries.  However, the AKC does not record all of these breeds either because there are limited dogs of that breed in the country or there is too little attention among owners of these breeds to get AKC registered status. With this, how does a dog breed become AKC-recognized?
It is not enough for a dog breed to just exist in order to be recognized. Below are two steps toward AKC recognition:
Step 1: Foundation Stock Service (FSS)
In 1995, AKC created the Foundation Stock Service (FSS), allowing aspiring AKC breeds to maintain a studbook and participate in AKC companion events. There are currently 81 breeds in the FSS, including the American Leopard Hound and the Yakutian Laika.
FSS is the first step and also the simplest toward AKC recognition. A breed club does not need to exist, or there can be multiple ones. A request to enter FSS can also be made by an individual. Therefore, the breed in question needs to be documented by a legitimate foreign or domestic registry. If not, or if the breed was developed in the United States, it should have a documented history, including pedigrees, that goes back at least 40 years. 
FSS also does not accept any dogs that result from crossing two ACK-registrable breeds in order to protect breeds that are already recognized by the AKC. It is also not open to breeds that are a variation of an already recognized breed.
Step 2: Miscellaneous Class
This is the final step before AKC recognition. This class currently has nine breeds, and the criteria at this point are more challenging. In order to move the breed into the Miscellaneous class, it must have a minimum of 150 dogs with three-generation pedigrees in its studbook, a feasible breed standard, and one club that will represent the breed as its parent club in the United States. 
How Long Does It Take?
The amount of time a breed stays in the Miscellaneous class varies. For example, the Peruvian Inca Orchid, a tiny, hairless South American Sighthound, has been in this class for a decade with little sign of being ready for recognition anytime soon. The Biewer Terrier, on the other hand, had more than 1,000 dogs in its studbook in 2020, which permits its parent club to apply for full AKC recognition after only six months in the Miscellaneous class. 
Some of the other requirements for leaving the Miscellaneous class behind are having a rational number of club members in good standing and ten dogs owned by members with Certificate of Merit titles. These are earned by showing in the Miscellaneous class offered at AKC shows.
Interesting Facts About Dog Breeding
Dog breeding is indeed fascinating to learn about. If you are looking for more information about it, below are more interesting facts about dog breeding that you need to learn about: 
- Around 70% of breeding animals are female. Female dogs have their first heat after six months of age. During heat, the female is fertile and will accept a mate. This recurs every six months until old age.
- Throughout the United States, more than 500,000 dogs are kept solely for breeding.
- Out of the 500,000 dogs kept for breeding in the US, around 30% of them are male, which equates to around 150,000 dogs.
- The average female dog stops breeding at age 6. Legally, no dog over the age of 12 should be reproducing. Most breed clubs approve that dogs should retire before the age of 8.
- The average litter consists of 6 puppies, but it depends on the size and breed of the dog.
- There are about 10,000 or more puppy mills in the United States, both legally and illegally. These are mass breeding facilities that use dogs as breeding machines. They are mostly kept in horrific conditions, and the puppies are sold through pet stores, online, and at flea markets.
- In the United States alone, the market size for bet breeding is $2 billion.
- In California, retail pet sales are banned to combat the issue of illegal puppy mills.
- Pregnant dogs increase their food intake by up to 50%.
- In the United States, over a million puppies are born every year by legal breeders. They are born and sold by legal, licensed breeders.
Creating a new dog breed is indeed a complex process that needs careful planning, selective breeding, and even genetic testing. It is amazing to learn that the creation of a new breed can take a lot of years or even decades of effort from breeders who have a clear vision of the desired characteristics and temperament of the new breed.
Over time, as dedicated breeders continue to selectively breed and refine the traits of the new breed, it may become recognized by kennel clubs and be a fully established breed. However, keep in mind that not all new dog breeds become popular and recognized. That is why the process of creating a new breed needs a deep understanding of genetics, ethical breeding practices, and health concerns. We hope this article helped you learn more about how a new dog breed is created.
 Breeding Business. (2022, August 29). History of dog breeding. Breeding Business. Retrieved April 12, 2023, from https://breedingbusiness.com/dog-breeding-history/
 Dog Time. (2015, July 28). A brief history of breeding. DogTime. Retrieved April 12, 2023, from https://dogtime.com/dog-health/general/915-breeding-history
 Adams, J. U. (2015, July 28). A brief history of breeding. DogTime. Retrieved April 12, 2023, from https://dogtime.com/dog-health/general/915-breeding-history
 Roper, K. (2022, October 19). Dog breeding for beginners: Lovetoknow Pets. LoveToKnow. Retrieved April 12, 2023, from https://www.lovetoknowpets.com/dogs/dog-breeding-for-beginners
 Breeding Business. (2020, June 12). Dog breeding techniques – list, definitions, use cases, Pros & Cons. Breeding Business. Retrieved April 12, 2023, from https://breedingbusiness.com/dog-breeding-techniques/
 American Kennel Club. (2022, June 15). AKC’s Guide to Responsible Dog Breeding. American Kennel Club. Retrieved April 13, 2023, from https://www.akc.org/breeder-programs/breeder-education/akcs-guide-responsible-dog-breeding/
 Elliott, P. (2021, December 19). How to breed dogs (with pictures) – wikihow pet. wikiHow.Pet. Retrieved April 13, 2023, from https://www.wikihow.pet/Breed-Dogs#
 Flaim, D. (2022, July 11). How does a dog breed become AKC-recognized? American Kennel Club. Retrieved April 13, 2023, from https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/dog-breeds/how-does-a-dog-breed-become-akc-recognized/
 Laura. (2023, April 13). 20 dog breeding statistics you didn’t know about. Breeding Business. Retrieved April 13, 2023, from https://breedingbusiness.com/dog-breeding-statistics/
 Xenia. (2023, March 2). How to create a new dog breed. Breeding Business. Retrieved April 13, 2023, from https://breedingbusiness.com/create-new-dog-breed/